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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Phenanthrene


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Phenanthrene is a pollutant from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, and is also used in the manufacture of dyes, explosives and pharmaceuticals.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
10
-
-
Water utilities
32
-
-
People Served
1,881,158
-
-

Health Concerns for Phenanthrene:


Phenanthrene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 10 states have reported detecting Phenanthrene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Phenanthrene contamination
SystemsPopulation
New Jersey71,529,987
Delaware4237,774
Arkansas854,967
Rhode Island143,809
New Hampshire33,248
Maine13,075
Nevada13,000
California12,772
Texas21,740
Iowa4786
Total321,881,158

The Most Polluted Communities

32 water utilities reported detecting Phenanthrene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Phenanthrene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Hampton Waterworks
Hampton, AR
1,7704 of 51.85 ppb
(0 to 4.78 ppb)
2Plover Water Supply
Storm Lake, IA
951 of 11.5 ppb
(1.5 ppb)
3Palmer Water Supply
Palmer, IA
2141 of 20.6 ppb
(0 to 1.2 ppb)
4Arsenal Water System
Pine Bluff, AR
2,5771 of 20.55 ppb
(0 to 1.09 ppb)
5Rector Waterworks
Rector, AR
2,1946 of 150.28 ppb
(0 to 1.5 ppb)
6NJ American Water Company
Shorthills, NJ
217,2301 of 10.21 ppb
(0.21 ppb)
7Modale Water Supply
Modale, IA
3031 of 10.2 ppb
(0.2 ppb)
8Harrisburg Waterworks
Harrisburg, AR
2,1922 of 40.19 ppb
(0 to 0.47 ppb)
9Lost Hills Utility District
Lost Hills, CA
2,7721 of 20.17 ppb
(0 to 0.34 ppb)
10City of Brenham
Brenham, TX
1,2001 of 50.12 ppb
(0 to 0.6 ppb)

Testing Summary for Phenanthrene

Are tests routinely required for Phenanthrene by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Phenanthrene (2004-2009):2,612 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Developments in Toxicology and Environtal Science 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1973
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1974
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1971
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1979
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Biochemical Journal 1968
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity National Toxicology Program
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity National Toxicology Program
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsPHENANTHRENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)PHENANTHRENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, priority chemical for voluntary waste/emission reductions
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)PHENANTHRENE•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensPHENANTHRENE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
National Toxicology ProgramPHENANTHRENE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
National Toxicology ProgramPHENANTHRENE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListPHENANTHRENE•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.
RTECS®- Biochemical Journal 1968PHENANTHRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (salmon tes)
RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1971PHENANTHRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- Developments in Toxicology and Environtal Science 1982PHENANTHRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells ( human lym)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001PHENANTHRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1973PHENANTHRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (rat emb)
RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1974PHENANTHRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse emb)
RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1977PHENANTHRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986PHENANTHRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991PHENANTHRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Phage Inhibition Capacity (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995PHENANTHRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002PHENANTHRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1979PHENANTHRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1979PHENANTHRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ipr)
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982PHENANTHRENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationNational Toxicology Program. Chemical Repository of Health and Safety Data. http://ntp-db.niehs.nih.gov/NTP_Reports/NTP_Chem_H&S/NTP_Chem8/Radian[Insert CAS#].txt
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationNational Toxicology Program. Chemical Repository of Health and Safety Data. http://ntp-db.niehs.nih.gov/NTP_Reports/NTP_Chem_H&S/NTP_Chem8/Radian[Insert CAS#].txt
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
RTECS®- Biochemical Journal 1968RTECS®- Biochemical Journal. (Biochemical Soc. Book Depot, POB 32, Commerce Way, Colchester, Essex CO2 8HP, UK) V.1- 110,159,1968
RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1971RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 20,1297,1971
RTECS®- Developments in Toxicology and Environtal Science 1982RTECS®- Developments in Toxicology and Environtal Science. (Elsevier Science, New York, NY) V.1-15, 1977-87. Discontinued 10,277,1982
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 37,231,2001
RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1973RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8. 51,799,1973
RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1974RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8. 52,1167,1974
RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1977RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8. 58,1635,1977
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 174,247,1986
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 260,349,1991
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 341,235,1995
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 515,85,2002
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1979RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 66,277,1979
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1979RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 66,65,1979
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982RTECS®- Personal Communication from J.F. Sina, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, PA 19486, Oct. 26, 1982 26OCT1982

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