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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Pentachlorophenol


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Pentachlorophenol is a carcinogenic pollutant discharged from wood preserving factories. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
22
22
2
Water utilities
105
105
4
People Served
5,119,286
5,119,286
4,544

Health Concerns for Pentachlorophenol:


Pentachlorophenol Exposure by State

Water utilities in 22 states have reported detecting Pentachlorophenol in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Pentachlorophenol contaminationWater suppliers reporting Pentachlorophenol above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Florida71,898,51971,898,519
Pennsylvania51,638,97751,638,977
Maryland22427,70822427,708
California5328,2155328,215
Delaware15252,48015252,480
Kentucky1248,0641248,064
North Carolina9108,6329108,632
Indiana537,299537,299
New York626,075626,075
Nebraska125,000125,000
Wisconsin822,662822,662
Alabama122,250122,250
Arizona121,000121,000
Oregon419,946419,946
New Hampshire114,000114,000
Vermont112,200112,200
New Mexico67,33867,338
Arkansas13,80013,800
Illinois32,66632,666
Ohio11,90011,900
Montana12801280
Missouri12751275
Total1055,119,2861055,119,286

The Most Polluted Communities

105 water utilities reported detecting Pentachlorophenol in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Pentachlorophenol level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Warsaw Village
Warsaw, NY
3,5941 of 21.5 ppb
(0 to 3 ppb)
2Yorkview Estates W S Inc
Mahopac, NY
2003 of 51.06 ppb
(0 to 2.53 ppb)
3Hellertown Borough Authority
Hellertown, PA
5,8001 of 10.4 ppb
(0.4 ppb)
4Greenfield County Wd
Bakersfield, CA
8,4001 of 30.23 ppb
(0 to 0.7 ppb)
5Beaver Creek
DE
3501 of 50.2 ppb
(0 to 1.01 ppb)
6Valle Del Rio Water System
Santa Teresa, NM
2431 of 20.18 ppb
(0 to 0.36 ppb)
7Laurel District
Dover, DE
751 of 50.14 ppb
(0 to 0.72 ppb)
8Prestwick Chase Pud
Saratoga Springs, NY
4001 of 80.14 ppb
(0 to 1.1 ppb)
9Mesilla Park Manor Water System
Las Cruces, NM
8481 of 20.12 ppb
(0 to 0.25 ppb)
10Summer Wind Mobile Home Park
Las Cruces, NM
4761 of 20.11 ppb
(0 to 0.23 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Pentachlorophenol

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.27 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.3 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.3 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.30 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.300 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb

Testing Summary for Pentachlorophenol

Are tests routinely required for Pentachlorophenol by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Pentachlorophenol (2004-2009):21,296 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Pentachlorophenol

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Pentachlorophenol since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations4
Monitoring Violations1,861
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Handbook of pesticide toxicology 2001
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2004
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Aichi Ika Daigaku Igakkai Zasshi 1982
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1978
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- IARC Scientific Publications 1974
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Handbook of pesticide toxicology 2001
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - strong evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1990
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 6023

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans National Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife National Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
Human skin irritant - moderate evidence National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 1962

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingPENTACHLOROPHENOL•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Very toxic
•Very toxic by inhalation
•Toxic
•Toxic in contact with skin and ingestion
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensPENTACHLOROPHENOL•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsPENTACHLOROPHENOL•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemPENTACHLOROPHENOL•EPA: probable endocrine disruptor
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsPENTACHLOROPHENOL•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
European Union - Water Framework DirectivePENTACHLOROPHENOL•Priority substance in EU water policy
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsPENTACHLOROPHENOL•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapPENTACHLOROPHENOL•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Dermatotoxin: Chloracne;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: In 1987, EPA restricted the use of PCP to certified applicators.;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 0.5 mg/m3;
•Bioaccumulates: Yes;
•Other Poison: Uncoupler;
•IARC Carcinogen - International Agency for Research on Cancer; classifies chemicals as established (1), probable (2a), or possible (2b) human carcinogens: Possible Carcinogen;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 0.5 mg/m3;BE: Total PCP in urine = 2 mg/g creatinine prior to last shift
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)PENTACHLORO-PHENOL•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsPENTACHLORO-PHENOL•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Great Lakes Binational Strategy, Tier 2 concern (moderate), targeting for monitoring/testing
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernPENTACHLORO-PHENOL•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsPENTACHLORO-PHENOL•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)PENTACHLOROPHENOL•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, priority chemical for voluntary waste/emission reductions
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)PENTACHLOROPHENOL•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsPENTACHLOROPHENOL•Pesticide inerts of toxicological concern according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsPENTACHLOROPHENOL
California EPA Proposition 65PENTACHLOROPHENOL•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004PENTACHLOROPHENOL•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004PENTACHLOROPHENOL•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004PENTACHLOROPHENOL•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterPENTACHLOROPHENOL•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterPENTACHLOROPHENOL•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1990PENTACHLOROPHENOL•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003PENTACHLOROPHENOL•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003PENTACHLOROPHENOL•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensPENTACHLOROPHENOL•Cancer hazards: recognized
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionPENTACHLOROPHENOL (PCP)HH-CAT1;WF-CAT3b
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListPHENOL, PENTACHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic, persistent, and toxic to aquatic organisms.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsPENTACHLOROPHENOL• o
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007PENTACHLOROPHENOL• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology 1980PENTACHLOROPHENOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Aichi Ika Daigaku Igakkai Zasshi 1982PENTACHLOROPHENOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 1962PENTACHLOROPHENOL• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1987PENTACHLOROPHENOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (other micro-organisms )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987PENTACHLOROPHENOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001PENTACHLOROPHENOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1978PENTACHLOROPHENOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse ipr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2004PENTACHLOROPHENOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human ast)
RTECS®- Handbook of pesticide toxicology 2001PENTACHLOROPHENOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (other micro-organisms )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- IARC Scientific Publications 1974PENTACHLOROPHENOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995PENTACHLOROPHENOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006PENTACHLOROPHENOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (non-mammalian species mul)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (non-mammalian species mul)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006PENTACHLOROPHENOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (other fish mul)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 6023PENTACHLOROPHENOL• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, Brucker-Davis, F. Effects of Environmental Synthetic Chemicals on Thyroid Function. Thyroid. 8(9): 827-856. 1998., Illinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology 1980RTECS®- Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology. (Senate Press, Inc., P.O. Box 252, Princeton Junction, NJ 08550) V.1- 1,241,1980
RTECS®- Aichi Ika Daigaku Igakkai Zasshi 1982RTECS®- Aichi Ika Daigaku Igakkai Zasshi. Journal of the Aichi Medical University Association. (Aichi Ika Daigaku Igakkai, Yazako, Nagakute-machi, Aichi-gun, Aichi-ken, Japan) V.1- 10,305,1982
RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 1962RTECS®- American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19- 23,95,1962
RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1987RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 13,7,1987
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 37,231,2001
RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1978RTECS®- Environmental Science Research. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.1- 1972- 12,325,1978
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2004RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 42,1323,2004
RTECS®- Handbook of pesticide toxicology 2001RTECS®- Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Robert Krieger ed, Academic press, 2001 2,1491,2001
RTECS®- IARC Scientific Publications 1974RTECS®- IARC Scientific Publications. (Geneva, Switzerland) No.1-26, 1971-78. For publisher information, see IAPUDO. 10,161,1974
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 343,157,1995
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 605,78,2006
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 609,92,2006
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 6023RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. OTS0546023

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