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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Paraquat


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Paraquat is an herbicide uses to control weeds and grasses for wide range of crops, a defoliant for cotton and hops, and a desiccant for fruit, sugar and other crops.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
1
-
-
Water utilities
2
-
-
People Served
12,589
-
-

Health Concerns for Paraquat:


Paraquat Exposure by State

Water utilities in 1 states have reported detecting Paraquat in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Paraquat contamination
SystemsPopulation
Arkansas212,589
Total212,589

The Most Polluted Communities

2 water utilities reported detecting Paraquat in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Paraquat level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Decatur Waterworks
Decatur, AR
1,5891 of 50.17 ppb
(0 to 0.85 ppb)
2Magnolia Waterworks
Magnolia, AR
11,0001 of 50.02 ppb
(0 to 0.1 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Paraquat

StandardDescriptionLevel
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.30 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb

Testing Summary for Paraquat

Are tests routinely required for Paraquat by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Paraquat (2004-2009):1,107 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1992
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1989
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2000
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Toxicological Sciences 2000
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionPARAQUAT = 1,1'-DIMETHYL-4,4'-BIPYRIDINIUMHH-CAT3b;WF-CAT3b
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,20074,4'-BIPYRIDINIUM, 1,1'-DIMETHYL-• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 19924,4'-BIPYRIDINIUM, 1,1'-DIMETHYL-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human ast)
RTECS®- Cancer Research 19894,4'-BIPYRIDINIUM, 1,1'-DIMETHYL-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 20014,4'-BIPYRIDINIUM, 1,1'-DIMETHYL-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lng)
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicological Sciences 20004,4'-BIPYRIDINIUM, 1,1'-DIMETHYL-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19844,4'-BIPYRIDINIUM, 1,1'-DIMETHYL-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (other micro-organisms )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19954,4'-BIPYRIDINIUM, 1,1'-DIMETHYL-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse ipr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse ipr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19984,4'-BIPYRIDINIUM, 1,1'-DIMETHYL-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 20004,4'-BIPYRIDINIUM, 1,1'-DIMETHYL-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 20084,4'-BIPYRIDINIUM, 1,1'-DIMETHYL-• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse oth)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1992RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 43,705,1992
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1989RTECS®- Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 49,5239,1989
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 37,155,2001
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicological Sciences 2000RTECS®- Journal of Toxicological Sciences. (Japanese Soc. of Toxicological Sciences, 4th Floor, Gakkai Center Bldg., 4-16, Yayoi 2-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan) V.1- 25,199,2000
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 138,39,1984
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 328,113,1995
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 412,187,1998
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2000RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 464,239,2000
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 655,4,2008

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