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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Nitrobenzene


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Nitrobenzene is a synthetic chemical used in the production of aniline, which is used to make dyes, herbicides and drugs.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
2
-
-
Water utilities
3
-
-
People Served
153,760
-
-

Health Concerns for Nitrobenzene:


Nitrobenzene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 2 states have reported detecting Nitrobenzene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Nitrobenzene contamination
SystemsPopulation
California2152,907
Maine1853
Total3153,760

The Most Polluted Communities

3 water utilities reported detecting Nitrobenzene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Nitrobenzene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Yermo Water Co
Victorville, CA
1,1001 of 21 ppb
(0 to 2 ppb)
2Limestone Water & Sewer District
Limestone, ME
8531 of 50.12 ppb
(0 to 0.58 ppb)
3City of Garden Grove
Garden Grove, CA
151,8071 of 480.03 ppb
(0 to 1.25 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Nitrobenzene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.4 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.17 ppb

Testing Summary for Nitrobenzene

Are tests routinely required for Nitrobenzene by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Nitrobenzene (2004-2009):2,031 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.5 per year

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Basic Life Sciences 1986
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 2003
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology 2004
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 2004
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 2004

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1995
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity Merck & Co
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Possible human reproductive or developmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,183,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Human skin irritant - moderate evidence National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingNITROBENZENE•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity
•Possible risk of impaired fertility
•Toxic
•Toxic by inhalation, skin contact, and ingestion
•Dangerous for the environment
•Toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensNITROBENZENE•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsNITROBENZENE• o
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsNITROBENZENE•Prohibited from use in Canadian cosmetics
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsNITROBENZENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListBENZENE, NITRO-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic, a developmental and reproductive toxin, and persistent.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)NITROBENZENE•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsNITROBENZENE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsNITROBENZENE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapNITROBENZENE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Dermatotoxin: Skin Burns;
•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Methemoglobinemia: Methemoglobinemia, Primary;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 1 ppm;
•IARC Carcinogen - International Agency for Research on Cancer; classifies chemicals as established (1), probable (2a), or possible (2b) human carcinogens: Possible Carcinogen;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 1 ppm;
•BEI - Biological Exposure Indices (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene, ACGIH): Total p-nitrophenol in urine = 5 mg/g creatinine at end of shift at end of workweek; methemoglobin in blood = 1.5% of
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensNITROBENZENE•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
International Fragrance Association Codes & StandardsNITROBENZENE•Fragrance unsafe for use in cosmetics
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNITROBENZENE•Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsNITROBENZENE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65NITROBENZENE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1995NITROBENZENE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204NITROBENZENE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Merck & CoNITROBENZENE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003NITROBENZENE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensNITROBENZENE•Cancer hazards: recognized
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseNITROBENZENE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007NITROBENZENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986NITROBENZENE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 2004NITROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Basic Life Sciences 1986NITROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (hamster lng)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,183,1971NITROBENZENE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006NITROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 2004NITROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994NITROBENZENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994NITROBENZENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994NITROBENZENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993NITROBENZENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 2003NITROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Toxicology 2004NITROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human kdy)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (rat kdy)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
International Fragrance Association Codes & StandardsIFRA (International Fragrance Association). 2006. Codes and Standards.
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationMerck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986 -,411,1986
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 2004RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 78,49,2004
RTECS®- Basic Life Sciences 1986RTECS®- Basic Life Sciences. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 223 Spring St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 39,359,1986
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,183,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,183,1971
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 608,28,2006
RTECS®- Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 2004RTECS®- Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberger, Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.272- 369(Suppl 1),R127,2004
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 2003RTECS®- Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 139,25,2003
RTECS®- Toxicology 2004RTECS®- Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 204,187,2004

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