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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Naphthalene


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Naphthalene is an intermediate in chemical manufacturing, a moth repellent, a fungicide, and a pollutant from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
25
-
-
Water utilities
103
-
-
People Served
1,366,807
-
-

Health Concerns for Naphthalene:


Naphthalene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 25 states have reported detecting Naphthalene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Naphthalene contamination
SystemsPopulation
California8368,225
Delaware9262,986
Texas6205,163
New Jersey5118,795
Rhode Island299,299
Massachusetts485,538
New Mexico458,742
Alabama450,934
Wisconsin1235,857
New York433,201
Arkansas815,692
Nebraska39,949
New Hampshire88,878
Missouri45,336
Virginia43,184
Iowa52,008
Vermont1825
Minnesota2728
Utah2470
Washington1250
Montana2212
North Carolina1191
Maine2151
Nevada1128
Alaska165
Total1031,366,807

The Most Polluted Communities

103 water utilities reported detecting Naphthalene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Naphthalene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Cedar Hollow Mobile Home Park
Wappingers Falls, NY
2001 of 15.8 ppb
(5.8 ppb)
2Plover Water Supply
Storm Lake, IA
951 of 14.8 ppb
(4.8 ppb)
3Kelliher
Kelliher, MN
3041 of 41.6 ppb
(0 to 6.4 ppb)
4Alexander Water Dept
Geneva, IA
1651 of 11.5 ppb
(1.5 ppb)
5Metz Water Association
Spokane, WA
2501 of 31.4 ppb
(0 to 4.2 ppb)
6Manly Water Supply
Manly, IA
1,3421 of 11.3 ppb
(1.3 ppb)
7Round Lake
Round Lake, MN
4242 of 41.16 ppb
(0 to 4.45 ppb)
8Stewartsville
Stewartsville, MO
7321 of 21.16 ppb
(0 to 2.32 ppb)
9Quail Oak Subdivision
Houston, TX
331 of 11.1 ppb
(1.1 ppb)
10Eglehoff Lawn
Thiensville, WI
501 of 11 ppb
(1 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Naphthalene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.500 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.500 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.700 ppb

Testing Summary for Naphthalene

Are tests routinely required for Naphthalene by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Naphthalene (2004-2009):19,094 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1997
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1992
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Known human hematologic toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Possible human hematologic toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human sense organ toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1990
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1991
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Emerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literature
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 9204

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,177,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at very low doses RTECS®- Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology (Elsevier Science, P 2004
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1968

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingNAPHTHALENE•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Harmful
•Harmful if swallowed
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsNAPHTHALENE• o
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsNAPHTHALENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListNAPHTHALENE•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic and suspected of aquatic toxicity.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)NAPHTHALENE•Group C: Possible human carcinogen (EPA classification)
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)NAPHTHALENE•Carcinogenicity cannot be determined (EPA classification)
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveNAPHTHALENE•Priority substance in EU water policy
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListNAPHTHALENE•The chemical has been reported as used in fragrance compounds by IFRA affiliated member companies in 2008.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsNAPHTHALENE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapNAPHTHALENE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Methemoglobinemia: Methemoglobinemia, Secondary;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 10 ppm;
•STEL (ACGIH) - Short-term exposure limits (ACGIH): 15 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 10 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 2: high ambient temperature required;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 250 ppm;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 0.64 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 0.0095 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensNAPHTHALENE•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNAPHTHALENE•Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
Emerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literatureNAPHTHALENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Limited or emerging evidence in open scientific literature
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)NAPHTHALENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, priority chemical for voluntary waste/emission reductions
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsNAPHTHALENE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65NAPHTHALENE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004NAPHTHALENE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterNAPHTHALENE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 9204NAPHTHALENE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1990NAPHTHALENE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1991NAPHTHALENE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensNAPHTHALENE•Cancer hazards: recognized
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007NAPHTHALENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001NAPHTHALENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology (Elsevier Science, P 2004NAPHTHALENE• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,177,1971NAPHTHALENE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995NAPHTHALENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1997NAPHTHALENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006NAPHTHALENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1992NAPHTHALENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994NAPHTHALENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994NAPHTHALENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994NAPHTHALENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993NAPHTHALENE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1968NAPHTHALENE• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListIFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Emerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literatureEmerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literature
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, Foth, H. Role of the Lung in Accumulation and Metabolism of Xenobiotic compounds - Implications for Chemically Induced Toxicity. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 25(2): 165-205. 1995. (Table 1:Toxic Damage of Lung by Foreign Compounds)., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, US EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Lu, F.C. Basic Toxicology. 2nd Edition. 1991., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 37,231,2001
RTECS®- Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology (Elsevier Science, P 2004RTECS®- Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology (Elsevier Science, P.O.Box 7247-7682,Philadelphia,PA 19170 -7682,USA OR Elsevier Science B.V.,P.O.Box 1270,1000 BG Amsterdam,The Netherlands) V.1- Feb.1996- 16,153,2004
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,177,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,177,1971
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 341,235,1995
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1997RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 393,23,1997
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 608,28,2006
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1992RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206- NTP-TR-410,1992
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1968RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817) 1/11/1968

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