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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Monochloroacetic acid


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Monochloroacetic acid is a disinfection byproduct regulated by EPA as one of five haloacetic acids that are formed when chlorine, chloramines or other disinfectants react with organic and inorganic matter in water. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
37
18
18
Water utilities
7,552
382
382
People Served
95,093,820
2,249,147
2,249,147

Health Concerns for Monochloroacetic acid:


Monochloroacetic acid Exposure by State

Water utilities in 37 states have reported detecting Monochloroacetic acid in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Monochloroacetic acid contaminationWater suppliers reporting Monochloroacetic acid above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Texas1,86917,308,5872841,474,669
North Carolina6366,241,98016381,078
New York83313,598,92839153,446
Florida2667,874,872375,725
Wisconsin2041,327,083669,563
Minnesota5653,782,0121458,813
Delaware32595,472112,000
Arizona531,905,06016,324
New Jersey2116,710,94414,800
Illinois4304,249,16322,903
California1914,654,83412,842
Nebraska1011,026,36942,488
Arkansas4822,600,21722,285
Ohio3407,209,02421,050
Alaska80103,9763828
Virginia2342,135,7731189
New Mexico76858,000196
Vermont73201,254148
Maryland1194,602,69800
Missouri4093,323,22900
Washington441,412,89700
Iowa1851,287,48200
Utah13621,61900
Maine50378,52100
Montana33280,99900
Nevada3272,03500
Idaho1185,78700
Hawaii668,53100
South Carolina268,44600
Michigan161,79900
Rhode Island146,00000
Connecticut142,00000
Colorado129,50000
North Dakota316,24100
Oregon19,10800
Wyoming22,02500
West Virginia11,35500
Total7,55295,093,8203822,249,147

The Most Polluted Communities

7,552 water utilities reported detecting Monochloroacetic acid in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Monochloroacetic acid level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Vallecitos Mdwca
La Madera, NM
961 of 1105.68 ppb
(105.68 ppb)
2City of Edcouch
Edcouch, TX
2,87423 of 2872.66 ppb
(0 to 171.4 ppb)
3City of LA Villa
La Villa, TX
3522 of 2262.85 ppb
(10.3 to 124.4 ppb)
4Laurel Canyon Ranch Water System
TX
361 of 261.95 ppb
(0 to 123.9 ppb)
5City of Santa Rosa
Santa Rosa, TX
2,23824 of 2960.31 ppb
(0 to 172.9 ppb)
6Lakeshore Sites Water Co
Haskell, TX
1489 of 1559.2 ppb
(0 to 178.7 ppb)
7Lago Vista Water System
Luling, TX
422 of 353.4 ppb
(0 to 80.1 ppb)
8Mount Royal S/D
Welaka, FL
253 of 350.88 ppb
(0.57 to 81.98 ppb)
9Mount Morris Town Pws
Mount Morris, NY
2341 of 249.05 ppb
(0 to 98.1 ppb)
10Zapata County Wcid Hwy 16 East
Zapata, TX
3520 of 2547.83 ppb
(0 to 166.1 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Monochloroacetic acid

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.60 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.350 ppb

Testing Summary for Monochloroacetic acid

Are tests routinely required for Monochloroacetic acid by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Monochloroacetic acid (2004-2009):22,823 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.9 per year

Violation Summary for Monochloroacetic acid

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Monochloroacetic acid since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations1
Monitoring Violations6
Reporting Violations0

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2002

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Human skin irritant - moderate evidence National Library of Medicine HazMap

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingCHLOROACETIC ACID•Toxic
•Toxic by inhalation, skin contact, and ingestion
•Corrosive
•Causes burns
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
FDA Everything Added to FoodMONOCHLOROACETIC ACID--PROHIBITED• The substance was formerly approved as a food additive but is now banned; there may be some toxicology data available.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListACETIC ACID, CHLORO-•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsCHLOROACETIC ACID•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapCHLOROACETIC ACID•Dermatotoxin: Skin Burns;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 1: must be preheated;
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsCHLOROACETIC ACID•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterCHLOROACETIC ACID•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterCHLOROACETIC ACID•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007CHLOROACETIC ACID• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987CHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001CHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse oth)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2002CHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1987CHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1982CHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (mouse lym)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
FDA Everything Added to FoodFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 38,69,2001
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2002RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 40,134,2002
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 9,143,1987
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1982RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 97,49,1982

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