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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Manganese


Status: For this chemical EPA has established a non-enforceable guideline called a "secondary standard," regulating it for aesthetic or cosmetic concerns (taste, odor, tooth discoloration, etc.)

Manganese is a naturally occurring element released from mineral deposits as well as industrial use.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
35
33
33
Water utilities
9,913
3,246
3,246
People Served
95,244,485
42,169,574
42,169,574

Health Concerns for Manganese:


Manganese Exposure by State

Water utilities in 35 states have reported detecting Manganese in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Manganese contaminationWater suppliers reporting Manganese above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California1,02041,743,74760129,209,310
New Jersey2617,059,551791,814,974
New York4473,362,7572041,722,383
Illinois8715,170,3982941,619,552
Washington5953,027,6373081,162,406
Nebraska1211,102,29863692,276
Missouri8972,069,574124628,241
Texas2,4899,900,158308536,810
New Hampshire770782,336397529,253
North Carolina7173,560,562276511,138
Massachusetts1202,697,27586501,729
Wisconsin1121,539,40841407,409
Nevada772,008,82820381,839
Ohio651,900,84937315,630
Minnesota51292,21440260,376
Delaware40494,38413246,855
Alaska41256,64326243,392
Virginia21697,20416213,297
Idaho9242,2764187,383
Michigan29279,73113161,193
Maryland26316,27516151,623
Maine279603,89368151,234
Arkansas3651,730,66040146,582
Alabama1041,159,69413107,577
Pennsylvania33401,5582097,456
Iowa2351,3101741,563
Kentucky801,727,0221030,739
Vermont127158,7045827,775
Utah20335,619526,064
Rhode Island623,297222,127
North Dakota7165,1353718,911
New Mexico94,75051,825
Montana155,2385652
Oklahoma1471,00000
Oregon12,50000
Total9,91395,244,4853,24642,169,574

The Most Polluted Communities

9,913 water utilities reported detecting Manganese in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Manganese level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Circle Washeteria
Circle, AK
1001 of 13290 ppb
(3290 ppb)
2Maury Service Authority
Lexington, VA
251 of 13000 ppb
(3000 ppb)
3Valley Mills Crossing
Bedford, VA
501 of 13000 ppb
(3000 ppb)
4Elysian Heights
VA
2851 of 12400 ppb
(2400 ppb)
5Cavendish Town Water System
Cavendish, VT
9005 of 52276 ppb
(1800 to 2570 ppb)
6Danville Elementary
NH
4712 of 22243 ppb
(756 to 3730 ppb)
7Country Club For Kids
NH
705 of 52146 ppb
(1800 to 2650 ppb)
8Melody Oaks Trailer Park
Jackson, CA
1202 of 22085 ppb
(1930 to 2240 ppb)
9Mountain View Shores Subdivision
Bedford, VA
4051 of 12000 ppb
(2000 ppb)
10Bald Knob Waterworks
Bald Knob, AR
3,2101 of 11980 ppb
(1980 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Manganese

StandardDescriptionLevel
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.50 ppb
National Secondary Drinking Water RegulationsA National Secondary Drinking Water Regulation is a non-enforceable guideline regarding contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (such as taste, odor, or color). Some states choose to adopt them as enforceable standards. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 50 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.300 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.300 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1600 ppb

Testing Summary for Manganese

Are tests routinely required for Manganese by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Manganese (2004-2009):16,536 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for Manganese

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Manganese since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations19
Monitoring Violations349
Reporting Violations0

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human nervous system toxicant ATSDR, 2008
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Klaassen, C, 1996
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J 1972
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J 1972
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans National Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife National Library of Medicine HazMap
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 9204
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at moderate doses RTECS®- Neurotoxicology 2002
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at moderate doses RTECS®- Neurotoxicology 2002
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2003

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1989
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- Progress Report for Contract No
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J 1972

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsMANGANESE• o
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListMANGANESE•This chemical was deemed a moderate human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)MANGANESE•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsMANGANESE COMPOUNDS•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapMANGANESE•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•Toxic Pneumonitis: Yes;
•Neurotoxin: Parkinson's Syndrome;
•Bioaccumulates: Yes;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 0.2 mg/m3;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 500 mg/m3;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 0.5 mg/m3, inhalable fraction;
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsMANGANESE; MANGANESE METAL ALLOY•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsMANGANESE COMPOUNDS•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
ATSDR, 2008MANGANESEATSDR states this manganese is a neurotoxin
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 9204MANGANESE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterMANGANESE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
Klaassen, C, 1996MANGANESE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterMANGANESE COMPOUNDS•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterMANGANESE COMPOUNDS•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005MANGANESE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006MANGANESE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007MANGANESE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J 1972MANGANESE• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1989MANGANESE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Dominant Lethal Strain (rat ipr)
RTECS®- Neurotoxicology 2002MANGANESE• developmental - Behavioral (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Central nervous system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Progress Report for Contract No MANGANESE• cancer - Tumors at site of application (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2003MANGANESE• reproductive - Spermatogenesis (mouse TDLo)
• reproductive - Testes, epididymis, sperm duct (mouse TDLo)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Open scientific literatureATSDR. Public Health Statement for Manganese. Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine September 2008
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, US EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Frazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf., A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J 1972RTECS®- "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J.V., Institut Pro Vychovu Vedoucicn Pracovniku Chemickeho Prumyclu Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1972 -,21,1972
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1989RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov V-VII groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing V-VII group elements), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1989. -,413,1989
RTECS®- Neurotoxicology 2002RTECS®- Neurotoxicology. (Intox Press, Inc., POB 34075, Little Rock, AR 72203) V.1- 1979- 23,635,2002
RTECS®- Progress Report for Contract No RTECS®- Progress Report for Contract No. PH-43-64-886, Submitted to the National Cancer Institute by The Institute of Chemical Biology, University of San Francisco. (San Francisco, CA 94117) PH43-64-886
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2003RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987- 17,547,2003

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