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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Lithium


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Lithium is a pollutant from mining and industrial manufacturing of metal alloys, ceramics, and batteries; it occurs naturally in soil and rock. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
3
-
-
Water utilities
9
-
-
People Served
17,431,874
-
-

Health Concerns for Lithium:


Lithium Exposure by State

Water utilities in 3 states have reported detecting Lithium in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Lithium contamination
SystemsPopulation
California717,380,400
Minnesota144,126
New York17,348
Total917,431,874

The Most Polluted Communities

9 water utilities reported detecting Lithium in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Lithium level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Saint Louis Park
St Louis Park, MN
44,1261 of 150 ppb
(50 ppb)
2Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
Los Angeles, CA
17,000,0005 of 525.98 ppb
(10.33 to 49 ppb)
3City of Napa
Napa, CA
70,0003 of 613.88 ppb
(0 to 40 ppb)
4Cabana Holiday Ws
Salinas, CA
4001 of 16.1 ppb
(6.1 ppb)
5City of Santa Clara
Santa Clara, CA
102,5008 of 95.58 ppb
(0 to 7.93 ppb)
6Glendale-City, Water Dept.
Glendale, CA
200,000259 of 2613.37 ppb
(0 to 7.6 ppb)
7LA Puente Valley Cwd
La Puente, CA
7,5002 of 22.02 ppb
(2 to 2.03 ppb)
8Horseheads Village
Horseheads, NY
7,3481 of 11.5 ppb
(1.5 ppb)
9Santa Clara Valley Water District
San Jose, CA
02 of 210.52 ppb
(0 to 6 ppb)

Testing Summary for Lithium

Are tests routinely required for Lithium by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Lithium (2004-2009):11 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):4.7 per year

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity Klaassen, C, 1996
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- United States Patent Document 1582

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Lancet 1969

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingLITHIUM•Highly flammable
•Reacts violently with water, liberating extremely flammable gases
•Corrosive
•Causes burns
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListLITHIUM•This chemical was flagged for further attention by CEPA due to suspected aquatic toxicity and persistence.
Klaassen, C, 1996LITHIUM•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- Lancet 1969LITHIUM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human unr)
RTECS®- Lancet 1969LITHIUM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human unr)
RTECS®- United States Patent Document 1582LITHIUM• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (mouse LD50)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996.
RTECS®- Lancet 1969RTECS®- Lancet. (7 Adam St., London WC2N 6AD, UK) V.1- 1823- 2,435,1969
RTECS®- Lancet 1969RTECS®- Lancet. (7 Adam St., London WC2N 6AD, UK) V.1- 2,435,1969
RTECS®- United States Patent Document 1582RTECS®- United States Patent Document. (U.S. Patent Office, Box 9, Washington, DC 20231) #6441582

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