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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Lindane


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Lindane is an insecticide still used in shampoo to control lice and scabies; it is a form of hexachlorocyclohexane, a highly toxic pesticide phased out of agricultural use in the U.S. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
14
9
1
Water utilities
42
22
1
People Served
2,189,150
92,857
5,455

Health Concerns for Lindane:


Lindane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 14 states have reported detecting Lindane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Lindane contaminationWater suppliers reporting Lindane above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Connecticut581,263347,690
California316,856316,856
Florida522,82029,162
North Carolina821,35976,071
Illinois726,23415,600
Delaware2205,80014,800
Texas11,93511,935
Indiana44,7063559
Maryland288,1841184
Pennsylvania11,600,00000
Massachusetts172,04300
Kentucky134,65000
Oregon112,50000
New York180000
Total422,189,1502292,857

The Most Polluted Communities

42 water utilities reported detecting Lindane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Lindane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Homestead Park S/D
Hickory, NC
13717 of 180.08 ppb
(0 to 0.11 ppb)
2Sundown Cove
Mooresville, NC
24612 of 170.06 ppb
(0 to 0.15 ppb)
3Luke / Newpage Luke Mill
Luke, MD
1842 of 70.06 ppb
(0 to 0.2 ppb)
4Lost Hills Utility District
Lost Hills, CA
2,7721 of 20.06 ppb
(0 to 0.11 ppb)
5City of Rio Hondo
Rio Hondo, TX
1,9351 of 40.03 ppb
(0 to 0.13 ppb)
6Chuluota Water System (2 Wps)
Chuluota, FL
3,8631 of 50.03 ppb
(0 to 0.14 ppb)
7City of Tehachapi
Tehachapi, CA
6,6501 of 40.03 ppb
(0 to 0.1 ppb)
8East Hampton Wpca - Village Center
East Hampton, CT
3661 of 20.03 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)
9Town of Aberdeen
Aberdeen, NC
5,4558 of 260.02 ppb
(0 to 0.27 ppb)
10Green Acres Mobile Home Park
Warsaw, IN
4001 of 50.02 ppb
(0 to 0.08 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Lindane

StandardDescriptionLevel
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.03 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.2 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.2 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.98 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb

Testing Summary for Lindane

Are tests routinely required for Lindane by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Lindane (2004-2009):20,493 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Lindane

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Lindane since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations1,804
Reporting Violations0

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - strong evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of wildlife and the environment disruption European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1994
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1973
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Bibliotheca Haematologica (Basel) 1971
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1993
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 1972
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Soviet Genetics 1966
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2003
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 2004
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1995
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Huanjing Kexue Xuebao 1984
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans United Nations Environment Programme/POPs Treaty
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of classified as toxic toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling_-HCH OR _-BHC•Toxic
•Toxic if swallowed
•Harmful
•Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin
•May cause harm to breastfed babies
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListCYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, (1_,2_,3ß ,4_,5_,6ß)-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic, persistent, bioaccumulate and toxic to aquatic organisms.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionGAMMA-HCH (LINDANE)HH-CAT1;WF-CAT2
European Union - Water Framework Directive(GAMMA-ISOMER, LINDANE)•Priority substance in EU water policy
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsLINDANE (ALL ISOMERS)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsBENZENEHEXACHLORIDE (BHC)
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsLINDANE (HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE)
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)(1.ALPHA.,2.ALPHA.,3.BETA.,4.ALPHA.,5.ALPHA.,6.BETA.)-CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs(1.ALPHA.,2.ALPHA.,3.BETA.,4.ALPHA.,5.ALPHA.,6.BETA.)-CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Great Lakes Binational Strategy, Tier 2 concern (moderate), targeting for monitoring/testing
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern(1.ALPHA.,2.ALPHA.,3.BETA.,4.ALPHA.,5.ALPHA.,6.BETA.)-CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs Treaty(1.ALPHA.,2.ALPHA.,3.BETA.,4.ALPHA.,5.ALPHA.,6.BETA.)-CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - action subject to pending risk assessment under international treaty (Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, or POPs Convention)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs(1.ALPHA.,2.ALPHA.,3.BETA.,4.ALPHA.,5.ALPHA.,6.BETA.)-CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 1972CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (rat par)
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1980CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (rat oth)
RTECS®- Bibliotheca Haematologica (Basel) 1971CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems ( human lym)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1994CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human oth)
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1993CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat orl)
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1995CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Dominant Lethal Strain (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1984CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ipr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1973CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems ( human fbr)
RTECS®- Huanjing Kexue Xuebao 1984CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (other fish lvr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1982CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Dominant Lethal Strain (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Phage Inhibition Capacity (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (chicken ipr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (chicken ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2003CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Soviet Genetics 1966CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 2004CYCLOHEXANE, 1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXACHLORO-, GAMMA-ISOMER• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human fbr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs TreatyUNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2001. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) — POPs Treaty.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 1972RTECS®- Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. (Copenhagen, Denmark) V.1-59, 1945-86. For publisher information, see PHTOEH 31,1,1972
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1980RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 45,101,1980
RTECS®- Bibliotheca Haematologica (Basel) 1971RTECS®- Bibliotheca Haematologica (Basel). (S. Karger AG, Postfach, CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland) No.1- 38(Pt1),344,1971
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 5,1547,1984
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1994RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 24,23,1994
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1993RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 31,271,1993
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1995RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 33,309,1995
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1984RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 49(5),82,1984
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1973RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI 17(3),32,1973
RTECS®- Huanjing Kexue Xuebao 1984RTECS®- Huanjing Kexue Xuebao. Environmental Sciences Journal. (China International Book Trading Corp., POB 2820, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 4,368,1984
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1982RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 101,315,1982
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 182,193,1987
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 272,175,1992
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 48,337,1977
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982RTECS®- Personal Communication from J.F. Sina, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, PA 19486, Oct. 26, 1982 26OCT1982
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2003RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 17,25,2003
RTECS®- Soviet Genetics 1966RTECS®- Soviet Genetics. English translation of GNKAA5. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.2- 2,80,1966
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 2004RTECS®- Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 147,35,2004

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