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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Lead (total)


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Lead is a metal that enters water by corrosion of household plumbing systems, discharge of industrial pollution and erosion of natural deposits. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
39
39
-
Water utilities
15,750
15,750
-
People Served
101,369,947
101,369,947
-

Health Concerns for Lead (total):


Lead (total) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 39 states have reported detecting Lead (total) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Lead (total) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Lead (total) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California55312,789,25355312,789,253
Illinois1,19611,228,6551,19611,228,655
New York2299,395,2342299,395,234
Florida6558,789,8606558,789,860
New Jersey5017,230,1015017,230,101
North Carolina1,2265,981,4321,2265,981,432
Texas9005,817,4059005,817,405
Washington1,3844,381,6851,3844,381,685
Kentucky2283,711,1382283,711,138
Missouri1,3773,430,9291,3773,430,929
Wisconsin1,6543,227,0151,6543,227,015
Arizona3802,704,5933802,704,593
Connecticut4622,650,2344622,650,234
Arkansas6462,500,4866462,500,486
Iowa8842,456,8568842,456,856
Oklahoma3072,326,0653072,326,065
Maryland261,664,885261,664,885
Nevada261,591,306261,591,306
Nebraska5161,386,3045161,386,304
Virginia573967,552573967,552
Oregon30851,79830851,798
Delaware139788,753139788,753
Michigan224710,990224710,990
Utah26710,75626710,756
Massachusetts23646,31323646,313
New Mexico220645,263220645,263
Montana541504,440541504,440
North Dakota96385,05096385,050
South Carolina14376,72014376,720
Alabama35343,00435343,004
Vermont277314,926277314,926
Alaska22249,58022249,580
Maine195238,190195238,190
Ohio30183,82430183,824
Hawaii548,474548,474
Idaho546,986546,986
New Hampshire10345,44810345,448
Rhode Island3031,5663031,566
Indiana1216,8781216,878
Total15,750101,369,94715,750101,369,947

The Most Polluted Communities

15,750 water utilities reported detecting Lead (total) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Lead (total) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Epsom Healthcare Center
Epsom, NH
2261 of 1121.3 ppb
(121.3 ppb)
2Killough Addition
Houston, TX
801 of 1121 ppb
(121 ppb)
3Pine Landing Condominium
Freedom, NH
501 of 1108 ppb
(108 ppb)
4Sand Point Water System
Sand Point, AK
1,1321 of 199.6 ppb
(99.6 ppb)
5Kids N More Daycare
NH
743 of 395 ppb
(41 to 125 ppb)
6Festival Garden Apartments
Syracuse, NY
722 of 283.63 ppb
(37.25 to 130 ppb)
7Anchor Point Watering Point
Anchor Point, AK
3481 of 182.6 ppb
(82.6 ppb)
8River Run Condominiums
Bartlett, NH
6751 of 181.5 ppb
(81.5 ppb)
9Maple Grove Mhp
Burlington, NC
281 of 180 ppb
(80 ppb)
10Turner Square Apartments
Turner, ME
631 of 176 ppb
(76 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Lead (total)

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.2 ppb

Testing Summary for Lead (total)

Are tests routinely required for Lead (total) by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Lead (total) (2004-2009):27,406 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.7 per year

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human reproductive toxicant European Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible human developmental toxicant California EPA Proposition 65
Human reproductive toxicant - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Archives of Environmental Health 1971
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Pharmacologist 1978
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1978

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Possible human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology 2003
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at very low doses RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1975
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity Benowitz, N, 1992
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1995
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity Klaassen, C, 1996
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity Nemery, B, 1990
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show blood effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Prace Nauwoke Uniwersytetu Slaskiego Katowicach 1982
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180, 1996
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies CARB, TAC

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at very low doses RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1975
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at high doses RTECS®- JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association 1977
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Strong evidence of occupational hazards European Union - Classification & Labelling

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Brucker-Davis, F, 1998
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Enhanced skin absorption

Type of concern: Reference:
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skin Nanomaterial Database



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingLEAD COMPOUNDS WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THOSE SPECIFIED ELSEWHERE IN THIS ANNEX•Known reproductive toxin
•May cause harm to the unborn child
•Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity
•Possible risk of impaired fertility
•Harmful
•Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed
•Danger of cumulative effects
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensLEAD AND LEAD COMPOUNDS, INORGANIC•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsLEAD•Prohibited from use in Canadian cosmetics
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsLEAD•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListLEAD•This chemical was flagged for further attention by CEPA due to suspected aquatic toxicity and persistence. The chemical was also flagged as a low human health priority.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemLEAD•EPA: probable endocrine disruptor
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)LEAD AND COMPOUNDS (INORGANIC)•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionLEADHH-CAT3;WF-CAT3
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsLEAD AND ITS COMPOUNDS•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveLEAD AND ITS COMPOUNDS•Priority substance in EU water policy
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsLEAD COMPOUNDS•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapLEAD•Anemia: Anemia, Hemolytic;
•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: Organic lead was added to gasoline in the US until January 1996. Lead allowable in US paint was reduced to 1% in 1971 and to 0.006% in 1977. [ATSDR Case Studies, Lead Toxicity];
•Nephrotoxin: Yes;
•Neurotoxin: Motor Neuropathy;PE: 0.05
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensLEAD COMPOUNDS, INORGANIC•IARC Group 2A: probable human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensLEAD•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensLEAD COMPOUNDS, ORGANIC •IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsLEAD COMPOUNDS•Pesticide inerts of toxicological concern according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
Nanomaterial DatabaseLEAD•potential nano-scale ingredient
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionLEAD AND LEAD COMPOUNDS•Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsLEAD
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)LEAD COMPOUNDS•Persistent toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsLEAD COMPOUNDS•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Great Lakes Binational Strategy, Tier 1 concern (highest), targeted for phase-out
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)LEAD•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, priority chemical for voluntary waste/emission reductions
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsLEAD; ROUGH LEAD BULLION•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for waste reporting under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsLEAD COMPOUNDS•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for waste reporting under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65LEAD•Developmental toxin: California Proposition 65
•Reproductive toxin, female: California Proposition 65
•Reproductive toxin, male: California Proposition 65
California EPA Proposition 65LEAD AND LEAD COMPOUNDS•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Benowitz, N, 1992LEAD•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
Brucker-Davis, F, 1998LEAD•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996LEAD•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1995LEAD•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180, 1996LEAD•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
Klaassen, C, 1996LEAD•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
Nemery, B, 1990LEAD•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensLEAD CHROMATE OXIDE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: recognized
CARB, TACLEAD COMPOUNDS•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterLEAD COMPOUNDS•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterLEAD COMPOUNDS•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterLEAD COMPOUNDS•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensLEAD COMPOUNDS•Developmental toxicity hazards: recognized
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensLEAD COMPOUNDS•Cancer hazards: recognized
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensLEAD COMPOUNDS•Reproductive toxicity hazards: recognized
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005LEAD• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006LEAD• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007LEAD• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Archives of Environmental Health 1971LEAD• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1978LEAD• reproductive - Biochemical and metabolic (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1978LEAD• reproductive - Blood and lymphatic system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1975LEAD• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Alteration of classical conditioning (rat TDLo)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Other degenerative changes (rat TDLo)
• metabolic - Other metals (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1982LEAD• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat ihl)
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1982LEAD• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat ihl)
RTECS®- JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association 1977LEAD• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage) (woman TDLo)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Hallucinations, distorted perceptions (woman TDLo)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Muscle weakness (woman TDLo)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985LEAD• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human unr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985LEAD• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human unr)
RTECS®- Pharmacologist 1978LEAD• reproductive - Behavioral (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Prace Nauwoke Uniwersytetu Slaskiego Katowicach 1982LEAD• blood - Changes in other cell count (unspecified) (mouse TDLo)
• blood - Other changes (mouse TDLo)
• blood - Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1981LEAD• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (monkey orl)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1981LEAD• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (monkey orl)
RTECS®- Toxicology 2003LEAD• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human ihl)
RTECS®- Toxicology 2003LEAD• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human ihl)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
Nanomaterial DatabaseNanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationBenowitz, N.L. Cardiotoxicity in the Workplace. Occupational Medicine. 7(3): 465-477. 1992. (Table 1: Chemical Toxins and Cardiovascular Disease)., US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Kristensen, T. S. Cardiovascular Diseases and the Work Environment. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health. 15:245-264. 1989. (Table 5: Classification of possible risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the work environment)., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationBrucker-Davis, F. Effects of Environmental Synthetic Chemicals on Thyroid Function. Thyroid. 8(9): 827-856. 1998., Illinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Landrigan, P.J., Goyer, R.A. Clarkson, T.W., Sandler, D.P., Smith, J.H., Thun, M.J., and R. Wedeen. The Work-Relatedness of Renal Disease. Archives of Environmental Health. 39(3): 225-230. 1984. (Table 2: Estimated Numbers of Workers in the United States with Potential Occupational Exposures to Known or Suspect Nephrotoxins)., Merck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm, Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
Scorecard.org Toxicity Informationnternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180. Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. World Health Organization. Geneva, 1996. (Table 1: Examples of compounds that are immunotoxic for humans or rodents).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationNemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-MC
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCARB, TAC
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Archives of Environmental Health 1971RTECS®- Archives of Environmental Health. (Heldref Pub., 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 1960- 23,102,1971
RTECS®- Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1978RTECS®- Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-46, 1942-87. 37,394,1978
RTECS®- Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1978RTECS®- Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-46, 1942-87. 37,895,1978
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1975RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936- 40(5),101,1975
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1982RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI 26(10),38,1982
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1982RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI 26(10),38,1982
RTECS®- JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association 1977RTECS®- JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. (AMA, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610) V.1- 1883- 237,2627,1977
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 147,301,1985
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 147,301,1985
RTECS®- Pharmacologist 1978RTECS®- Pharmacologist. (American Soc. for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20014) V.1- 1959- 20,201,1978
RTECS®- Prace Nauwoke Uniwersytetu Slaskiego Katowicach 1982RTECS®- Prace Nauwoke Uniwersytetu Slaskiego Katowicach. (Uniwersytet Slaski w Katowicach, Prace Naukowe, Katowice, Poland) No.901- 1988- (505),53,1982
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1981RTECS®- Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977- 8,165,1981
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1981RTECS®- Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 8,165,1981
RTECS®- Toxicology 2003RTECS®- Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973- 187,183,2003
RTECS®- Toxicology 2003RTECS®- Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 187,183,2003

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