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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Isophorone


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Isophorone is a solvent for lacquers, plastics, oils, fats, gums, resins, nitrocellulose, vinyl resins and other chemicals; it is also an intermediate in chemical manufacturing and occurs naturally in cranberries.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
3
-
-
Water utilities
3
-
-
People Served
244,609
-
-

Health Concerns for Isophorone:


Isophorone Exposure by State

Water utilities in 3 states have reported detecting Isophorone in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Isophorone contamination
SystemsPopulation
California1200,000
Rhode Island143,809
New York1800
Total3244,609

The Most Polluted Communities

3 water utilities reported detecting Isophorone in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Isophorone level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Mcwa, Genesee West
Rochester, NY
8001 of 4< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.03 ppb)
2City of Newport
Newport, RI
43,8094 of 23< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.03 ppb)
3Glendale-City, Water Dept.
Glendale, CA
200,0001 of 46< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.15 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Isophorone

StandardDescriptionLevel
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.35 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.40 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.100 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.7000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.15000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.15000 ppb

Testing Summary for Isophorone

Are tests routinely required for Isophorone by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Isophorone (2004-2009):330 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1971
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1940
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at low doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1946

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Cancer - limited evidence US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2002
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1986
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1999

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,140,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
Human skin irritant - moderate evidence National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at low doses RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia" 1994
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Journal Europeen de Toxicologie 1972

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Everything Added to Food

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling3,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Harmful
•Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to eyes and respiratory system
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensISOPHORONE•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsISOPHORONE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
FDA Everything Added to FoodISOPHORONE• Fully up-to-date toxicology information has been sought.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in Cosmetics3,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsISOPHORONE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapISOPHORONE•Dermatotoxin: Skin Burns;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 25 ppm;
•RD50 - Concentration producing a 50% decrease in respiratory rate in experimental animals following a 10-minute exposure: 27 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 2036 ppm;
•Ceiling (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene, ACGIH): 5 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 2: high ambient temperature required;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 200 ppm;
•Lacrimator - A substance that irritates the eyes and induces the flow of tears: Yes;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 0.19 ppm;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 2 ppm;
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)ISOPHORONE•Group C: Possible human carcinogen (EPA classification)
International Fragrance Association Codes & StandardsISOPHORONE•Fragrance unsafe for use in cosmetics
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsISOPHORONE•Pesticide inerts of toxicological concern according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004ISOPHORONE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterISOPHORONE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2002ISOPHORONE•Cancer hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterISOPHORONE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003ISOPHORONE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsISOPHORONE•Prohibited from use in Canadian cosmetics
Environment Canada Domestic Substance List2-CYCLOHEXEN-1-ONE, 3,5,5-TRIMETHYL-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic and persistent.
International Fragrance Association Codes & StandardsISOPHORONE•Fragrance unsafe for use in cosmetics
International Fragrance Association Codes & Standards#49 ISOPHORONE•Fragrance unsafe for use in cosmetics
International Fragrance Association Codes & StandardsOTHER MATERIALS•Fragrance unsafe for use in cosmetics
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 19863,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia" 19943,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19883,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Journal Europeen de Toxicologie 19723,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 19403,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (guinea pig )
RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 19463,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant ( human )
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,140,19713,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 19993,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse oth)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19943,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19963,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 19863,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 19943,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 19943,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 19943,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 19933,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 19713,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENONE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
FDA Everything Added to FoodFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
International Fragrance Association Codes & StandardsIFRA (International Fragrance Association). 2006. Codes and Standards.
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, US EPA, National Center for Environmental Assessment. Integrated Risk Information System. http://www.epa.gov/iriswebp/iris/index.html, US EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs. List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential (5/10/2002). OPP, Washington, DC. http://www.epi.uci.edu/valleycenter/EPAListCarcinogenicChemicals.pdf, US EPA, Office of Emergency Response and Remediation. Superfund Chemical Data Matrix. http://www.epa.gov/superfund/resources/scdm/index.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986 -,290,1986
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia" 1994RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia". (Hazardous substances. Galogen and oxygen containing substances), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1994. -,460,1994
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 12,85,1988
RTECS®- Journal Europeen de Toxicologie 1972RTECS®- Journal Europeen de Toxicologie. (Paris, France) V.1-6, 1968-72. For publisher information, see TOERD9. 5,31,1972
RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1940RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU. 22,477,1940
RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1946RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU. 28,262,1946
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,140,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,140,1971
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1999RTECS®- Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 14,23,1999
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 315,147,1994
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 369,243,1996
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1986RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206- NTP-TR-291,1986
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1971RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817) 11/15/1971

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