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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Hexachlorobenzene is a pollutant from metal refineries and agricultural chemical factories. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
12
12
-
Water utilities
21
21
-
People Served
654,325
654,325
-

Health Concerns for Hexachlorobenzene (HCB):


Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 12 states have reported detecting Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Delaware1201,0001201,000
Arizona1180,0001180,000
California1150,2531150,253
Kentucky134,650134,650
Arkansas128,775128,775
Maryland225,184225,184
Oregon216,580216,580
Florida411,690411,690
Connecticut44,25044,250
Minnesota11,00311,003
New York18001800
Indiana21402140
Total21654,32521654,325

The Most Polluted Communities

21 water utilities reported detecting Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Scwa, Hillcrest Division (Hlc)
Gales Ferry, CT
6991 of 20.11 ppb
(0 to 0.22 ppb)
2Scwa, Gray Farms Division (Grf)
Gales Ferry, CT
4601 of 20.11 ppb
(0 to 0.22 ppb)
3Lafayette A-Ok Campground
Lafayette, IN
262 of 70.09 ppb
(0 to 0.65 ppb)
4Scwa, Chesterfield Division (Chf)
Gales Ferry, CT
5241 of 30.07 ppb
(0 to 0.22 ppb)
5Scwa Tower-Ferry View Division (Twr-Fvh)
Gales Ferry, CT
2,5671 of 30.07 ppb
(0 to 0.22 ppb)
6Edgerton
Edgerton, MN
1,0031 of 30.03 ppb
(0 to 0.1 ppb)
7Luke / Newpage Luke Mill
Luke, MD
1841 of 80.03 ppb
(0 to 0.2 ppb)
8Sun Mountain Water System Inc
Bend, OR
7001 of 30.02 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)
9Bardstown Municipal Water Dept
Bardstown, KY
34,6501 of 70.02 ppb
(0 to 0.11 ppb)
10Mcwa, Genesee West
Rochester, NY
8001 of 4< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.04 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.<0.01 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.02 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.03 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.30 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.50 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.50 ppb

Testing Summary for Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)

Are tests routinely required for Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (2004-2009):19,892 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations1,689
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen European Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Basic Life Sciences 1986
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Rivista di Scienza e Technologia degli Alimenti e di Nutrizione Umana 1976

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - strong evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption BKH/European Commission, 2000
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human skin and immune toxicant or allergen - strong evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180, 1996
Limited evidence of immune toxicity or allergies CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Human developmental toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human reproductive toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of renal toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Known human hematologic toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human gastrointestinal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity LaDou, J, 1990
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) National Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans National Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans EU PTBs - PRIO database & Secondary PRIO database
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans United Nations Environment Programme/POPs Treaty
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife National Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - limited evidence - immune system CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingHEXACHLOROBENZENE•May cause cancer
•May cause cancer
•Toxic
•Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensHEXACHLOROBENZENE•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsHEXACHLOROBENZENE• P
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsHEXACHLOROBENZENE• P
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsHEXACHLOROBENZENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListBENZENE, HEXACHLORO-•This chemical was flagged for further attention by CEPA due to suspected bioaccumulation and aquatic toxicity. The chemical was also flagged as a low human health priority.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemHEXACHLOROBENZENE•EPA: probable endocrine disruptor
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)HEXACHLOROBENZENE•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionHEXACHLOROBENZENE (HCB)HH-CAT1;WF-CAT3
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsHEXACHLOROBENZENE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveHEXACHLOROBENZENE•Priority substance in EU water policy
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsHEXACHLOROBENZENE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapHEXACHLOROBENZENE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: Banned from use as a pesticide in the U.S. [EXTOXNET];
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Bioaccumulates: Yes;
•Other Poison: Organochlorine Pesticide;
•IARC Carcinogen - International Agency for Research on Cancer; classifies chemicals as established (1), probable (2a), or possible (2b) human carcinogens: Possible Carcinogen;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 0.002 mg/m3;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensHEXACHLOROBENZENE•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionHEXACHLOROBENZENE•Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsHEXACHLORO-BENZENERestricted use under the Aahrus Protocol for Persistent Organic Pollutants
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsHEXACHLORO-BENZENEScheduled for elimination under Aahrus Protocol for Persistent Organic Pollutants
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)HEXACHLORO-BENZENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
EU PTBs - PRIO database & Secondary PRIO databaseHEXACHLOROBENZENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - European Chemicals Bureau PBT working group
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsHEXACHLORO-BENZENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Great Lakes Binational Strategy, Tier 1 concern (highest), targeted for phase-out
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernHEXACHLORO-BENZENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)HEXACHLOROBENZENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, priority chemical for voluntary waste/emission reductions
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs TreatyHEXACHLORO-BENZENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for emission reductions and process controls under international treaty (Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, or POPs Convention)
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs TreatyHEXACHLORO-BENZENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for restrictions under international treaty (Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, or POPs Convention)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsHEXACHLORO-BENZENE•Very persistent and bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for waste reporting under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65HEXACHLOROBENZENE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004HEXACHLOROBENZENE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
BKH/European Commission, 2000HEXACHLOROBENZENE•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterHEXACHLOROBENZENE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003HEXACHLOROBENZENE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180, 1996HEXACHLOROBENZENE•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
LaDou, J, 1990HEXACHLOROBENZENE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensHEXACHLOROBENZENE•Developmental toxicity hazards: recognized
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensHEXACHLOROBENZENE•Cancer hazards: recognized
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007HEXACHLOROBENZENE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Basic Life Sciences 1986HEXACHLOROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995HEXACHLOROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981HEXACHLOROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Rivista di Scienza e Technologia degli Alimenti e di Nutrizione Umana 1976HEXACHLOROBENZENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsAarhus LRTAP. 1998. Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, United Nations Environment Program.
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
EU PTBs - PRIO database & Secondary PRIO databaseEU (European Union). 2006. Persistent, bioaccumulative chemicals identified in PRIO database - a tool for risk reduction of chemicals. Secondary PRIO database - a tool for risk reduction of chemicals. Secondary Kemi. Place Published, Kemi-Swedish Chemicals Inspectorate.
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs TreatyUNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2001. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) — POPs Treaty.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
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Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationBKH/European Commission. Towards the establishment of a priority list of substances for further evaluation of their role in endocrine disruption: - preparation of a candidate list of substances as a basis for priority setting. Final report-November 2000. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/01262_en.htm#bkh. Category 1 chemicals from Annex 1: Candidate list of 553 substances. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/bkh_annex_01.pdf, Brucker-Davis, F. Effects of Environmental Synthetic Chemicals on Thyroid Function. Thyroid. 8(9): 827-856. 1998., Illinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
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Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
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