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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Heptachlor


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Heptachlor is a highly toxic and carcinogenic termiticide banned from most applications in the U.S. since 1988. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
7
7
-
Water utilities
20
20
-
People Served
445,519
445,519
-

Health Concerns for Heptachlor:


Heptachlor Exposure by State

Water utilities in 7 states have reported detecting Heptachlor in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Heptachlor contaminationWater suppliers reporting Heptachlor above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Delaware2201,0602201,060
Illinois12191,76612191,766
Kentucky134,650134,650
Florida19,44519,445
Maryland27,68427,684
New York18001800
Indiana11141114
Total20445,51920445,519

The Most Polluted Communities

20 water utilities reported detecting Heptachlor in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Heptachlor level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Luke / Newpage Luke Mill
Luke, MD
1843 of 110.05 ppb
(0 to 0.2 ppb)
2Maeystown
Maeystown, IL
2301 of 60.03 ppb
(0 to 0.16 ppb)
3Loves Park
Loves Park, IL
22,4761 of 70.02 ppb
(0 to 0.15 ppb)
4Harvel
Harvel, IL
2131 of 20.02 ppb
(0 to 0.04 ppb)
5Expressway Mhp
Quincy, IL
981 of 30.02 ppb
(0 to 0.06 ppb)
6Dakota
Dakota, IL
4991 of 20.02 ppb
(0 to 0.04 ppb)
7Carpenters Row
Greenville, DE
601 of 40.02 ppb
(0 to 0.07 ppb)
8Aqua Illinois-Sun River Terrace
St Anne, IL
4371 of 40.02 ppb
(0 to 0.07 ppb)
9Broadview Academy
Elburn, IL
851 of 50.01 ppb
(0 to 0.07 ppb)
10Allendale
Allendale, IL
5281 of 5< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Heptachlor

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.<0.01 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.<0.01 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.<0.01 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.4 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.8 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20 ppb

Testing Summary for Heptachlor

Are tests routinely required for Heptachlor by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Heptachlor (2004-2009):20,070 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Heptachlor

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Heptachlor since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations1,689
Reporting Violations0

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- "Insecticide Biochemistry and Physiology," Wilkinson, C 1976
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Soviet Genetics 1966
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity Lu, F, 1991
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity Merck & Co

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans United Nations Environment Programme/POPs Treaty
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - moderate evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Illinois EPA, 1997
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Strong evidence of occupational hazards European Union - Classification & Labelling

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - limited evidence - immune system CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingHEPTACHLOR•Toxic
•Toxic in contact with skin and ingestion
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Danger of cumulative effects
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensHEPTACHLOR, AND HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsHEPTACHLOR• P
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsHEPTACHLOR•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemHEPTACHLOR•EPA: probable endocrine disruptor
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)HEPTACHLOR•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionHEPTACHLORHH-CAT2;WF-CAT3
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsHEPTACHLOR•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsHEPTACHLOR•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapHEPTACHLOR•Anemia: Anemia, Aplastic;
•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: All uses cancelled in 1988; still licensed for control of fire ants in electrical transformers; [EXTOXNET] All U.S. registrations cancelled except for underground use in power lines to control fire ants; [EPA Pesticides,
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensHEPTACHLOR•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensHEPTACHLOR•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsHEPTACHLOR
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants1,4,5,6,7,8,8-HEPTACHLORO-3A,4,7,7A-TETRAHYDRO-4,7-METHANO-1H-INDENEScheduled for elimination under Aahrus Protocol for Persistent Organic Pollutants
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs1,4,5,6,7,8,8-HEPTACHLORO-3A,4,7,7A-TETRAHYDRO-4,7-METHANO-1H-INDENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Great Lakes Binational Strategy, Tier 2 concern (moderate), targeting for monitoring/testing
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern1,4,5,6,7,8,8-HEPTACHLORO-3A,4,7,7A-TETRAHYDRO-4,7-METHANO-1H-INDENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)HEPTACHLOR•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, priority chemical for voluntary waste/emission reductions
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs Treaty1,4,5,6,7,8,8-HEPTACHLORO-3A,4,7,7A-TETRAHYDRO-4,7-METHANO-1H-INDENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for restrictions under international treaty (Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, or POPs Convention)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,4,5,6,7,8,8-HEPTACHLORO-3A,4,7,7A-TETRAHYDRO-4,7-METHANO-1H-INDENE•Very persistent and bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for waste reporting under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65HEPTACHLOR•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterHEPTACHLOR•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterHEPTACHLOR•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204HEPTACHLOR•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Illinois EPA, 1997HEPTACHLOR•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
Lu, F, 1991HEPTACHLOR•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
Merck & CoHEPTACHLOR•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensHEPTACHLOR•Developmental toxicity hazards: recognized
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensHEPTACHLOR•Cancer hazards: recognized
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007HEPTACHLOR• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Insecticide Biochemistry and Physiology," Wilkinson, C 1976HEPTACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Dominant Lethal Strain (rat orl)
RTECS®- Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology 1980HEPTACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988HEPTACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992HEPTACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995HEPTACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977HEPTACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis ( human fbr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006HEPTACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- Soviet Genetics 1966HEPTACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse ipr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsAarhus LRTAP. 1998. Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, United Nations Environment Program.
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs TreatyUNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2001. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) — POPs Treaty.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationIllinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationLu, F.C. Basic Toxicology. 2nd Edition. 1991.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationMerck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
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RTECS®- Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology 1980RTECS®- Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology. (Senate Press, Inc., P.O. Box 252, Princeton Junction, NJ 08550) V.1- 1,241,1980
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 12,85,1988
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 19,98,1992
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RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 608,28,2006
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