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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Heptachlor epoxide


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Heptachlor epoxide is a beakdown product of heptachlor, a highly toxic and carcinogenic termiticide banned from most applications in the U.S. since 1988. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
11
11
1
Water utilities
62
62
1
People Served
2,141,168
2,141,168
209

Health Concerns for Heptachlor epoxide:


Heptachlor epoxide Exposure by State

Water utilities in 11 states have reported detecting Heptachlor epoxide in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Heptachlor epoxide contaminationWater suppliers reporting Heptachlor epoxide above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Hawaii2713,3302713,330
Nebraska2513,9322513,932
Florida12390,43712390,437
Delaware1201,0001201,000
New York3154,8003154,800
Illinois1779,8931779,893
North Carolina2139,8742139,874
Kentucky134,650134,650
Alabama112,954112,954
Maryland11841184
Indiana11141114
Total622,141,168622,141,168

The Most Polluted Communities

62 water utilities reported detecting Heptachlor epoxide in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Heptachlor epoxide level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1M/H Park Inc. (Fka - Lee's Mhp)
Lake City, FL
804 of 50.06 ppb
(0 to 0.12 ppb)
2Luke / Newpage Luke Mill
Luke, MD
1843 of 110.05 ppb
(0 to 0.2 ppb)
3Ashebrook Park
Gastonia, NC
23912 of 160.05 ppb
(0 to 0.09 ppb)
4Amber Acres
Knightdale, NC
20912 of 150.05 ppb
(0 to 0.41 ppb)
5Westwood S/D
Holiday, FL
2006 of 80.04 ppb
(0 to 0.08 ppb)
6Mathersville
Mathersville, IL
7791 of 20.03 ppb
(0 to 0.07 ppb)
7Royal Acres S/D
Raleigh, NC
679 of 100.03 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)
8Braxton Hills/Simmons Heights
Fayetteville, NC
6984 of 40.03 ppb
(0.02 to 0.05 ppb)
9Orangewood Water System
Holiday, FL
5,93712 of 150.03 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)
10Dalewood-Monteray Wtr System
Gastonia, NC
1425 of 70.02 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Heptachlor epoxide

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.<0.01 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.<0.01 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.<0.01 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.2 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.4 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.4 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10 ppb

Testing Summary for Heptachlor epoxide

Are tests routinely required for Heptachlor epoxide by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Heptachlor epoxide (2004-2009):20,016 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Heptachlor epoxide

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Heptachlor epoxide since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations1
Monitoring Violations1,692
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Strong evidence of occupational hazards European Union - Classification & Labelling

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Illinois EPA, 1997
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of renal toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingHEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE•Toxic
•Toxic if swallowed
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Danger of cumulative effects
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensHEPTACHLOR AND HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsHEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemHEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE•EPA: probable endocrine disruptor
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionHEPTACHLOR-EPOXIDEHH-CAT3a;WF-CAT3b
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsHEPTACHLOR-EPOXIDE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsHEPTACHLOR-EPOXIDE
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs2,3,4,5,6,7,7-HEPTACHLORO-1A,1B,5,5A,6,6A,-HEXAHYDRO-(2A ALPHA, 1B BETA, 2 ALPHA, 5 ALPHA, 5A BETA, 6 BETA, 6A ALPHA-2,5-METHANO-2H-INDENO[1,2-B]OXIRENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Great Lakes Binational Strategy, Tier 2 concern (moderate), targeting for monitoring/testing
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern2,3,4,5,6,7,7-HEPTACHLORO-1A,1B,5,5A,6,6A,-HEXAHYDRO-(2A ALPHA, 1B BETA, 2 ALPHA, 5 ALPHA, 5A BETA, 6 BETA, 6A ALPHA-2,5-METHANO-2H-INDENO[1,2-B]OXIRENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, priority chemical for voluntary waste/emission reductions
California EPA Proposition 65HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Illinois EPA, 1997HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensHEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE•Cancer hazards: recognized
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis ( human fbr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationIllinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 42,161,1977

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