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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Fluorene


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Fluorene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) released from the incomplete combustion of fuels including oil, gasoline, coal and wood, as well as waste materials; it is an intermediate in production of dyes and other chemicals.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
5
-
-
Water utilities
12
-
-
People Served
346,963
-
-

Health Concerns for Fluorene:


Fluorene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 5 states have reported detecting Fluorene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Fluorene contamination
SystemsPopulation
Delaware3237,699
Rhode Island199,166
Arkansas36,541
New Hampshire33,248
Iowa2309
Total12346,963

The Most Polluted Communities

12 water utilities reported detecting Fluorene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Fluorene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Plover Water Supply
Storm Lake, IA
951 of 19.1 ppb
(9.1 ppb)
2Hampton Waterworks
Hampton, AR
1,7704 of 50.28 ppb
(0 to 0.72 ppb)
3Palmer Water Supply
Palmer, IA
2141 of 20.2 ppb
(0 to 0.4 ppb)
4Arsenal Water System
Pine Bluff, AR
2,5771 of 20.12 ppb
(0 to 0.23 ppb)
5Seaford Water Department
Seaford, DE
6,6992 of 40.06 ppb
(0 to 0.13 ppb)
6Rehoboth District
Dover, DE
30,0001 of 180.05 ppb
(0 to 0.92 ppb)
7Rector Waterworks
Rector, AR
2,1943 of 140.04 ppb
(0 to 0.21 ppb)
8Farmington Water Dept
Farmington, NH
3,0001 of 1< 0.01 ppb
(< .01 to 0.0078 ppb)
9City of Pawtucket
Pawtucket, RI
99,1661 of 15< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)
10Artesian Water Company
Newark, DE
201,0001 of 73< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.1 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Fluorene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.300 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1100 ppb

Testing Summary for Fluorene

Are tests routinely required for Fluorene by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Fluorene (2004-2009):2,611 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1979
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsFLUORENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)FLUORENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, priority chemical for voluntary waste/emission reductions
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)FLUORENE•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensFLUORENE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004FLUORENE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1979FLUORENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse mmr)
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1988FLUORENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (mouse lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988FLUORENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991FLUORENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004FLUORENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1979RTECS®- Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 39,1784,1979
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1988RTECS®- Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 3,193,1988
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 203,155,1988
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 259,103,1991
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 557,99,2004

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