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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Ethylene dibromide (EDB)


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Ethylene dibromide is a a pollutant from petroleum refineries that was formerly used as gasoline additive and a pesticide suspended from use by EPA in 1984. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
20
20
11
Water utilities
79
79
19
People Served
2,574,195
2,574,195
603,453

Health Concerns for Ethylene dibromide (EDB):


Ethylene dibromide (EDB) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 20 states have reported detecting Ethylene dibromide (EDB) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Ethylene dibromide (EDB) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Ethylene dibromide (EDB) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California201,049,050201,049,050
Florida12836,45012836,450
Delaware3201,5073201,507
New York4140,6514140,651
Massachusetts2105,5002105,500
New Mexico151,983151,983
Maryland245,736245,736
Kentucky134,650134,650
Nebraska324,983324,983
Arizona219,242219,242
Illinois318,836318,836
Hawaii218,067218,067
North Carolina109,331109,331
Oregon19,25019,250
Idaho24,19924,199
Washington32,70632,706
Arkansas31,06231,062
Wisconsin27002700
Connecticut22322232
Virginia160160
Total792,574,195792,574,195

The Most Polluted Communities

79 water utilities reported detecting Ethylene dibromide (EDB) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Ethylene dibromide (EDB) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1South Othello Water Users
Othello, WA
363 of 30.12 ppb
(0.09 to 0.14 ppb)
2City of Warden
Warden, WA
2,57524 of 280.06 ppb
(0 to 0.15 ppb)
3Maunaolu Plantation
Wailuku, HI
10011 of 190.05 ppb
(0 to 0.12 ppb)
4Point Baker Water System Inc.
Milton, FL
11,1653 of 50.05 ppb
(0 to 0.09 ppb)
5Madera-City
Madera, CA
48,33666 of 860.05 ppb
(0 to 0.15 ppb)
6Jay Town of - Utilities Dept.
Jay, FL
1,84812 of 120.04 ppb
(<0.01 to 0.06 ppb)
7F-Troop
Sheboygan, WI
2001 of 20.03 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)
8Town of Walnut Cove
Walnut Cove, NC
1,5587 of 150.02 ppb
(0 to 0.09 ppb)
9Calam - Lincoln Oaks
Sacramento, CA
44,70838 of 570.02 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)
10Country Corner Mobile Home Park
Gig Harbor, WA
955 of 50.02 ppb
(0.01 to 0.04 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Ethylene dibromide (EDB)

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.01 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.02 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.05 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.8 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.8 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.300 ppb

Testing Summary for Ethylene dibromide (EDB)

Are tests routinely required for Ethylene dibromide (EDB) by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Ethylene dibromide (EDB) (2004-2009):22,868 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.5 per year

Violation Summary for Ethylene dibromide (EDB)

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Ethylene dibromide (EDB) since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations23
Monitoring Violations1,413
Reporting Violations0

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - strong evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences, 1993
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Human reproductive toxicant - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen European Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Possible human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more human case studies show possible cancer findings NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1997
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicologic Pathology 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1989
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1986
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Laboratory Investigation 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1986
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Science of the Total Environment 1979
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1979
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Biologisches Zentralblatt 1972
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1989
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Science 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2005
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2007
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Biken Journal 1980
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1974
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1980
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 1974
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Experientia 1974
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1979
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1994
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Science of the Total Environment 1979
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- IARC Scientific Publications 1974
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Biological Chemistry 2002
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutagenesis 1989
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1986

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 1996
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity Lock, E, 1992
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine 1952
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,15,1973
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at very low doses RTECS®- Archiv fuer Gewerbepathologie und Gewerbehygiene 1938
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at very low doses RTECS®- AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine 1952

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & Labelling1,2-DIBROMOETHANE•May cause cancer
•May cause cancer
•Toxic
•Toxic by inhalation, skin contact, and ingestion
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
•Dangerous for the environment
•Toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensETHYLENE DIBROMIDE (1,2-DIBROMOETHANE)•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsEDB• P
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsEDB• P
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsEDB• P
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants1,2-DIBROMOETHANE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListETHANE, 1,2-DIBROMO-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic, persistent, and toxic to aquatic organisms.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)1,2-DIBROMOETHANE•Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (EPA classification)
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)1,2-DIBROMOETHANE•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionDIBROMOETHANE (EDB)HH-CAT1;WF-CAT3b
European Union - Banned or Restricted in Cosmetics1,2-DIBROMOETHANE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsETHYLENE DIBROMIDE (DIBROMOETHANE)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapETHYLENE DIBROMIDE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: Use as fumigant suspended by EPA due to toxicity and ground water contamination. [Sullivan, p. 1053];
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Primary;
•Nephrotoxin: Yes;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;PE: 20 ppm, Ceiling(OSHA) = 30 ppm (50 ppm for 5-min peak per 8-hour shift)
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensETHYLENE DIBROMIDE •IARC Group 2A: probable human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensETHYLENE DIBROMIDE•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition1,2-DIBROMOETHANE (ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE)•Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland1,2-DIBROMOETHANE•Induces mammary tumors (National Toxicology Program classification)
Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors1,2-DIBROMOETHANE
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)1,2DIBROMOETHANE•Toxicant of concern under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,2DIBROMOETHANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE •Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 19961,2-DIBROMOETHANE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences, 19931,2-DIBROMOETHANE•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
Lock, E, 19921,2-DIBROMOETHANE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens1,2-DIBROMOETHANE•Developmental toxicity hazards: recognized
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens1,2-DIBROMOETHANE•Cancer hazards: recognized
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens1,2-DIBROMOETHANE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: recognized
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database1,2-DIBROMOETHANE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology 19801,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine 19521,2-DIBROMOETHANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Archiv fuer Gewerbepathologie und Gewerbehygiene 19381,2-DIBROMOETHANE• skin - Primary skin irritant ( human )
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 19801,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 19851,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Biken Journal 19801,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 19861,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat orl)
RTECS®- Biochemical Pharmacology 19741,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (Escherichia coli )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Biologisches Zentralblatt 19721,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Host-mediated Assay (mouse )
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 19811,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human lym)
RTECS®- Cancer Research 19741,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA repair (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Cancer Research 19781,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (rat ipr)
RTECS®- Cancer Research 19891,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (rat ipr)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 19811,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 19821,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (rat lvr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 19861,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat ipr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19921,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test ( human lym)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 19941,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Heritable Translocation Test (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 20041,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 20051,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse oth)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 19831,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat spr)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 19851,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 19861,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (other fish lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (other fish lym)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 19871,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Experientia 19741,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 19801,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 19801,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (mammal scu)
RTECS®- IARC Scientific Publications 19741,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 19811,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (rat emb)
RTECS®- Journal of Biological Chemistry 20021,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Laboratory Investigation 19781,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat orl)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,15,19731,2-DIBROMOETHANE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 19891,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (non-mammalian species mul)
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 19891,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19851,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19851,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19861,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19871,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19971,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human fbr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19981,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 20051,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19791,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (mouse lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 20071,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19791,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19801,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19811,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (hamster ovr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19821,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 19821,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 19941,2-DIBROMOETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 19811,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (other micro-organisms )
RTECS®- Science of the Total Environment 19791,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Neurospora crassa )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (rat ipr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (mammal lym)
RTECS®- Science 19871,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Toxicologic Pathology 19841,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (rat orl)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 19821,2-DIBROMOETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (mammal lym)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary GlandNTP (National Toxicology Program) 2006. Chemicals Associated with Site-Specific Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationJapanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationLock, E.A., and E. Harpur. Toxicology of Sensory System: A Perspective. Human and Experimental Toxicology. 11(6): 442-448. 1992. (Table 1: Chemicals that induce olfactory lesions in experimental animals by either inhalation and/or non-inhalation routes)., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
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