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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Ethylene Glycol


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Ethylene glycol is used in antifreeze and de-icing solutions for cars, airplanes, and boats, to make polyester, as a solvent in the paint and plastics industries and in photographic developing solutions, hydraulic brake fluids and inks.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
1
-
-
Water utilities
1
-
-
People Served
151,042
-
-

Health Concerns for Ethylene Glycol:


Ethylene Glycol Exposure by State

Water utilities in 1 states have reported detecting Ethylene Glycol in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Ethylene Glycol contamination
SystemsPopulation
California1151,042
Total1151,042

The Most Polluted Communities

1 water utilities reported detecting Ethylene Glycol in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Ethylene Glycol level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1California Water Service Co. - Ela
Montebello, CA
151,0421 of 13500 ppb
(3500 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Ethylene Glycol

StandardDescriptionLevel
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.6000 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.14000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70000 ppb

Testing Summary for Ethylene Glycol

Are tests routinely required for Ethylene Glycol by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Ethylene Glycol (2004-2009):5 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.2 per year

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at low doses RTECS®- Bulletin of Parenteral Drug Association 1977
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Technical Information Service
One or more animal studies show gastrointestinal effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene 1976
One or more animal studies show gastrointestinal effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Sudebno-Meditsinskaya Ekspertiza 1983
One or more animal studies show liver effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Sudebno-Meditsinskaya Ekspertiza 1983
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1970
One or more animal studies show respiratory effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Postgraduate Medical Journal 1976
One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Postgraduate Medical Journal 1976
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity Jankovic, J, 1996
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1985
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1985
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Zhonghua Yufangyixue Zazhi 1986
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development 1984
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 4594
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi 1994

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at moderate doses RTECS®- European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene 1976
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at moderate doses RTECS®- Sudebno-Meditsinskaya Ekspertiza 1983
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at high doses RTECS®- Postgraduate Medical Journal 1976

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 1980

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1965

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingETHANEDIOL•Harmful
•Harmful if swallowed
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsETHYLENE GLYCOL• o
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsETHYLENE GLYCOL

•May contain harmful impurities
Environment Canada Domestic Substance List1,2-ETHANEDIOL•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for as a low human health priority.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionETHYLENE GLYCOL (ETHANE-1,2-DIOL)HH-CAT3;WF-CAT3
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListETHYLENE GLYCOL•The chemical has been reported as used in fragrance compounds by IFRA affiliated member companies in 2008.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsETHYLENE GLYCOL•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapETHYLENE GLYCOL•Ceiling (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene, ACGIH): 100 mg/m3;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 1: must be preheated;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 26 mg/m3;
NTP - Risks to Human ReproductionETHYLENE GLYCOLREPRO: Negligible concern || DEVELOPMENT: Negligible concern at exposures below 125 mg/kg bw.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs1,2ETHANEDIOL•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004ETHYLENE GLYCOL•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004ETHYLENE GLYCOL•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterETHYLENE GLYCOL•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003ETHYLENE GLYCOL•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
Jankovic, J, 1996ETHYLENE GLYCOL•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986ETHYLENE GLYCOL• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Bulletin of Parenteral Drug Association 1977ETHYLENE GLYCOL• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene 1976ETHYLENE GLYCOL• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Coma ( human LDLo)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold ( human LDLo)
• gastrointestinal - Hypermotility, diarrhea ( human LDLo)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service ETHYLENE GLYCOL• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service ETHYLENE GLYCOL• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 4594ETHYLENE GLYCOL• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Litter size (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Uterus, cervix, vagina (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Postgraduate Medical Journal 1976ETHYLENE GLYCOL• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - General anesthetic (child TDLo)
• kidney or renal system - Other changes (child TDLo)
• respiratory - Respiratory stimulation (child TDLo)
RTECS®- Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 1980ETHYLENE GLYCOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 1980ETHYLENE GLYCOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1982ETHYLENE GLYCOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human lym)
RTECS®- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1982ETHYLENE GLYCOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human lym)
RTECS®- Sudebno-Meditsinskaya Ekspertiza 1983ETHYLENE GLYCOL• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Headache ( human LDLo)
• gastrointestinal - Nausea or vomiting ( human LDLo)
• liver - Other changes ( human LDLo)
RTECS®- Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development 1984ETHYLENE GLYCOL• reproductive - Craniofacial (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1970ETHYLENE GLYCOL• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rat )
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1985ETHYLENE GLYCOL• developmental - Blood and lymphatic system (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Skin and skin appendages (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1970ETHYLENE GLYCOL• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rat )
RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika 1985ETHYLENE GLYCOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat orl)
RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika 1985ETHYLENE GLYCOL• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat orl)
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1965ETHYLENE GLYCOL• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi 1994ETHYLENE GLYCOL• reproductive - Testes, epididymis, sperm duct (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Zhonghua Yufangyixue Zazhi 1986ETHYLENE GLYCOL• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (rat TDLo)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsCIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListIFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NTP - Risks to Human ReproductionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2006. NTP Center for the Evaluation fo Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR). NTP-CERHR Reports and Monographs.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Merck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, Chapin, R.E. and R.A. Sloane. NIEHS/NTP Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding: Evolving Study Design and Summaries of Ninety Studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Supplement 1: 199-394. 1997. http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1997/Suppl-1/chapin.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationJankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996., Chapin, R.E. and R.A. Sloane. NIEHS/NTP Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding: Evolving Study Design and Summaries of Ninety Studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Supplement 1: 199-394. 1997. http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1997/Suppl-1/chapin.html
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986 -,205,1986
RTECS®- Bulletin of Parenteral Drug Association 1977RTECS®- Bulletin of Parenteral Drug Association. (Philadelphia, PA) V.1-31, 1946-77. 31,25,1977
RTECS®- European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene 1976RTECS®- European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene. (Paris, France) V.7-9, 1974-76. For publisher information, see TOERD9. 9,373,1976
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. LMF-69
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. LMF-69
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 4594RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. PB85-104594
RTECS®- Postgraduate Medical Journal 1976RTECS®- Postgraduate Medical Journal. (Blackwell Scientific Pub. Ltd., POB 88, Oxford, UK) V.1- -1925 52,598,1976
RTECS®- Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 1980RTECS®- Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research. (Waverly Press, 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 21,74,1980
RTECS®- Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 1980RTECS®- Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research. (Waverly Press, 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1954- 21,74,1980
RTECS®- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1982RTECS®- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (National Academy of Sciences, Printing & Pub. Office, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418) V.1- 1915- 79,1171,1982
RTECS®- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1982RTECS®- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (National Academy of Sciences, Printing & Pub. Office, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418) V.1- 79,1171,1982
RTECS®- Sudebno-Meditsinskaya Ekspertiza 1983RTECS®- Sudebno-Meditsinskaya Ekspertiza. Forensic Medical Examination. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1958- 26(2),48,1983
RTECS®- Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development 1984RTECS®- Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968- 29(2),52A,1984
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1970RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959- 16,646,1970
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1985RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959- 81,113,1985
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1970RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 16,646,1970
RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika 1985RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika. Cytology and Genetics. For English translation, see CYGEDX. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1967- 19,436,1985
RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika 1985RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika. Cytology and Genetics. For English translation, see CYGEDX. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 19,436,1985
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1965RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817) 7/21/1965
RTECS®- Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi 1994RTECS®- Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi. Journal of Health Toxicology. (Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi Bianjibu, Dongdaqiao, Chaoyang Menwai, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1987 8,12,1994
RTECS®- Zhonghua Yufangyixue Zazhi 1986RTECS®- Zhonghua Yufangyixue Zazhi. Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine. (China International Book Trading Corp., POB 2820, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) Beginning history not known. 20,289,1986

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