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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Endrin


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Endrin is a banned organochlorine insecticide that is persistent, bioaccumulative, acutely toxic to vertebrates and associated with massive deaths of fish, birds and other wildlife. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
12
4
1
Water utilities
25
9
1
People Served
2,169,155
1,829,570
300

Health Concerns for Endrin:


Endrin Exposure by State

Water utilities in 12 states have reported detecting Endrin in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Endrin contaminationWater suppliers reporting Endrin above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Maryland31,806,38421,800,184
Illinois420,262420,262
Connecticut440,22516,324
California22,80022,800
Delaware1201,00000
Kentucky134,65000
Massachusetts128,00000
North Carolina314,87000
Wisconsin110,07000
Florida39,98000
New York180000
Indiana111400
Total252,169,15591,829,570

The Most Polluted Communities

25 water utilities reported detecting Endrin in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Endrin level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Erskine Creek Wc
Lake Isabella, CA
2,5001 of 10.57 ppb
(0.57 ppb)
2Brock Mutual Water Company
Bakesrfield, CA
3001 of 50.53 ppb
(0 to 2.65 ppb)
3Luke / Newpage Luke Mill
Luke, MD
1843 of 100.15 ppb
(0 to 0.5 ppb)
4IL American-Pontiac
Creve Coeur, IL
11,8641 of 140.14 ppb
(0 to 2 ppb)
5Clinton
Clinton, IL
7,5001 of 30.05 ppb
(0 to 0.14 ppb)
6Expressway Mhp
Quincy, IL
981 of 30.04 ppb
(0 to 0.12 ppb)
7Ashmore
Ashmore, IL
8001 of 50.03 ppb
(0 to 0.13 ppb)
8CTWC - Naugatuck Reg-Collinsville Sys
Naugatuck, CT
6,3241 of 40.03 ppb
(0 to 0.1 ppb)
9Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission
Silver Spring, MD
1,800,0002 of 190.01 ppb
(0 to 0.13 ppb)
10East Hampton Wpca - Royal Oaks System
CT
3281 of 7< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.04 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Endrin

StandardDescriptionLevel
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.06 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.1.8 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20 ppb

Testing Summary for Endrin

Are tests routinely required for Endrin by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Endrin (2004-2009):20,018 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Endrin

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Endrin since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations1,694
Reporting Violations0

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human developmental toxicant California EPA Proposition 65
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity Jankovic, J, 1996

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans National Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans United Nations Environment Programme/POPs Treaty
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife National Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - moderate evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of wildlife and the environment disruption European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Illinois EPA, 1997
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as very toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity Merck & Co
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) National Library of Medicine HazMap

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 1973
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 1972
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingENDRIN•Very toxic
•Very toxic if swallowed
•Toxic
•Toxic in contact with skin
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsENDRIN• P
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsENDRIN•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemENDRIN•EPA: probable endocrine disruptor
National Library of Medicine HazMapENDRIN•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: Voluntary cancellation in 1985; all U.S. registrations cancelled; [EPA Pesticides, p. 56];
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 0.1 mg/m3;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 2500 mg/m3;
•Bioaccumulates: Yes;
•Other Poison: Organochlorine Pesticide;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 0.1 mg/m3;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 1: must be preheated;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 2 mg/m3;MA: 0.1
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsENDRINBanned under the Aahrus Protocol for Persistent Organic Pollutants
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsENDRIN•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Great Lakes Binational Strategy, Tier 2 concern (moderate), targeting for monitoring/testing
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernENDRIN•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs TreatyENDRIN•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for ban under international treaty (Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, or POPs Convention)
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)ENDRIN•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensENDRIN•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
California EPA Proposition 65ENDRIN•Developmental toxin: California Proposition 65
Illinois EPA, 1997ENDRIN•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
Jankovic, J, 1996ENDRIN•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Merck & CoENDRIN•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensENDRIN•Developmental toxicity hazards: recognized
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsENDRIN•Prohibited from use in Canadian cosmetics
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionENDRINHH-CAT2;WF-CAT2
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007ENDRIN• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 1972ENDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (rat par)
RTECS®- Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 1973ENDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat par)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983ENDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (other fish mul)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsAarhus LRTAP. 1998. Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, United Nations Environment Program.
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs TreatyUNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2001. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) — POPs Treaty.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationIllinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationJankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationMerck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 1972RTECS®- Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. (Copenhagen, Denmark) V.1-59, 1945-86. For publisher information, see PHTOEH 31,1,1972
RTECS®- Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 1973RTECS®- Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 9,65,1973
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 118,61,1983

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