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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Diuron


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Diuron is an herbicide used on railroad rights-of-way, cotton, citrus crops, fruits, nuts and other crops.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
1
1
-
Water utilities
2
2
-
People Served
129,576
129,576
-

Health Concerns for Diuron:


Diuron Exposure by State

Water utilities in 1 states have reported detecting Diuron in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Diuron contaminationWater suppliers reporting Diuron above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California2129,5762129,576
Total2129,5762129,576

The Most Polluted Communities

2 water utilities reported detecting Diuron in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Diuron level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Elsinore Valley Mwd
Lake Elsinore, CA
81,1011 of 70.7 ppb
(0 to 4.9 ppb)
2Jurupa Community Sd
Mira Loma, CA
48,4754 of 340.13 ppb
(0 to 1.5 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Diuron

StandardDescriptionLevel
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.2 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.2 ppb-200 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb

Testing Summary for Diuron

Are tests routinely required for Diuron by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Diuron (2004-2009):206 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.7 per year

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Handbook of pesticide toxicology 2001
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - moderate evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, 1788
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 1788

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingDIURON (ISO); 3-(3,4-DICHLOROPHENYL)-1,1-DIMETHYLUREA•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Harmful if swallowed
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
FDA Food Additive StatusDIURON• PEST
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• 4 parts per million - In dried citrus pulp for livestock feed applic of the pesticide to growing citrus fruits - CFR561.220
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListUREA, N'-(3,4-DICHLOROPHENYL)-N,N-DIMETHYL-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic, persistent, and toxic to aquatic organisms.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionDIURONHH-CAT2;WF-CAT3
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsDIURON•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveDIURON•Priority substance in EU water policy
National Library of Medicine HazMapDIURON•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 10 mg/m3;
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsN'-(3,4-DICHLOROPHENYL)-N,N-DIMETHYL-UREA•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65DIURON•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
US EPA, 1788DIURON•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 1788DIURON•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensDIURON•Cancer hazards: recognized
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007DIURON• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Handbook of pesticide toxicology 2001DIURON• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978DIURON• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (mouse orl)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
FDA Food Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Handbook of pesticide toxicology 2001RTECS®- Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Robert Krieger ed, Academic press, 2001 2,1523,2001
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 58,353,1978

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