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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Diethylphthalate


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Diethylphthalate is an industrial solvent used in many consumer products, particularly those containing fragrances; it may be present in perfume, cologne, deodorant, soap, shampoo, hand lotion, and other personal care products. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
9
-
-
Water utilities
52
-
-
People Served
854,317
-
-

Health Concerns for Diethylphthalate:


Diethylphthalate Exposure by State

Water utilities in 9 states have reported detecting Diethylphthalate in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Diethylphthalate contamination
SystemsPopulation
Delaware33472,883
California2222,607
New Jersey2111,927
Maine526,476
Texas16,060
Nevada25,852
New Hampshire45,167
Washington12,910
Wisconsin2435
Total52854,317

The Most Polluted Communities

52 water utilities reported detecting Diethylphthalate in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Diethylphthalate level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Gander Woods
Dover, DE
421 of 511.48 ppb
(0 to 57.4 ppb)
2Willow Lake
Dover, DE
1741 of 610.08 ppb
(0 to 60.5 ppb)
3Meadows District
Dover, DE
10,1431 of 96.08 ppb
(0 to 54.73 ppb)
4Villas of Grandview
Wilmington, DE
1071 of 46.03 ppb
(0 to 24.1 ppb)
5Indian Hills Gid
Carson City, NV
5,8001 of 15.64 ppb
(5.64 ppb)
6Bethany Bay Ocean View
Dover, DE
27,1061 of 74.74 ppb
(0 to 33.2 ppb)
7Point Farm
Dover, DE
2131 of 54.3 ppb
(0 to 21.5 ppb)
8Market Basket Demoulas 25
NH
3951 of 13.6 ppb
(3.6 ppb)
9Hooksett Village Water Prct
Hooksett, NH
2,2501 of 12.8 ppb
(2.8 ppb)
10Wilmington Water Department
Wilmington, DE
140,0001 of 82.73 ppb
(0 to 21.84 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Diethylphthalate

StandardDescriptionLevel
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1700 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.6000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.30000 ppb

Testing Summary for Diethylphthalate

Are tests routinely required for Diethylphthalate by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Diethylphthalate (2004-2009):2,578 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show reproductive system effects at high doses RTECS®- Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 1978
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development 1993
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1972
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high doses RTECS®- Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1972
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1987
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Oyo Yakuri 1987

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of disruption Swan SH, 2008
Associated with endocrine disruption Parveen M, Inoue A, Ise R, Tanji M, Kiyama R, 2008
Associated with endocrine disruption Hong EJ, Ji YK, Choi KC, Manabe N, Jeung EB, 2005
Associated with endocrine disruption Harris CA, Henttu P, Parker MG, Sumpter JP, 1997

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies National Library of Medicine HazMap

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 1978
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 1978
One or more animal studies show gastrointestinal effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 1978
One or more animal studies show blood effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1982
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1944
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1985

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2003

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsDIETHYL PHTHALATE•Safe as used in cosmetics according to industry panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR)
•Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product
•Determined safe for use in cosmetics based on concentrations of surrogate, related chemical in cosmetics, by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsDIETHYL PHTHALATE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance List1,2-BENZENEDICARBOXYLIC ACID, DIETHYL ESTER•This chemical was deemed a low human health priority and was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListDIETHYL PHTHALATE•The chemical has been reported as used in fragrance compounds by IFRA affiliated member companies in 2008.
National Library of Medicine HazMapDIETHYL PHTHALATE•Skin Sensitizer - An agent that can induce an allergic reaction in the skin or lungs: Yes;
•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 5 mg/m3;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 1: must be preheated;
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsDIETHYL PHTHALATE•Pesticide inerts: potentially toxic, testing priority, according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsDIETHYL ESTER1,2BENZENEDICARBOXYLIC ACID•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Parveen M, Inoue A, Ise R, Tanji M, Kiyama R, 2008DIETHYL PHTHALATEDiethyl phthalate (DEP) affected the expression of estrogen responsive genes in a manner similar to natural estrogen.
Hong EJ, Ji YK, Choi KC, Manabe N, Jeung EB, 2005DIETHYL PHTHALATEDiethyl phthalate (DEP) demonstrated estrogenic activity by increasing the proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro.
Harris CA, Henttu P, Parker MG, Sumpter JP, 1997DIETHYL PHTHALATEDiethyl phthalate was weakly estrogenic when tested by in vitro assay of human estrogen receptor using a recombinant yeast screen.
Swan SH, 2008DIETHYL PHTHALATEIn human epidemiological studies, diethyl phthalate has been associated with decreased anogenital distance (marker of reproductive system development) in baby boys, changes in the levels of reproductive hormones, and sperm DNA damage.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005DIETHYL PHTHALATE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006DIETHYL PHTHALATE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007DIETHYL PHTHALATE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2003DIETHYL PHTHALATE• skin - Primary skin irritant ( human )
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2003DIETHYL PHTHALATE• skin - Primary skin irritant ( human )
RTECS®- Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 1978DIETHYL PHTHALATE• metabolic - Weight loss or decreased weight gain (rat TDLo)
• liver - Changes in liver weight (rat TDLo)
• reproductive system - Changes in testicular weight (rat TDLo)
• gastrointestinal - Other changes (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1972DIETHYL PHTHALATE• developmental - Musculoskeletal system (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1944DIETHYL PHTHALATE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1944DIETHYL PHTHALATE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1985DIETHYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1985DIETHYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Oyo Yakuri 1987DIETHYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development 1993DIETHYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Musculoskeletal system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1987DIETHYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Live birth index (mouse TDLo)
• reproductive - Physical (mouse TDLo)
• reproductive - Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands (mouse TDLo)
• reproductive - Spermatogenesis (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1982DIETHYL PHTHALATE• blood - Changes in serum composition (eg., TP, bilirubin, cholesterol) (rat TDLo)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsCIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListIFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Open scientific literatureParveen M, Inoue A, Ise R, Tanji M, Kiyama R. 2008. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of phthalate esters by gene expression profiling using a focused microarray (EstrArray). Environ Toxicol Chem. 27(6): 1416-25.
Open scientific literatureHong EJ, Ji YK, Choi KC, Manabe N, Jeung EB. 2005. Conflict of estrogenic activity by various phthalates between in vitro and in vivo models related to the expression of Calbindin-D9k. J Reprod Dev. 51(2): 253-63.
Open scientific literatureHarris CA, Henttu P, Parker MG, Sumpter JP. 1997. The Estrogenic Activity of Phthalate Esters In Vitro. Environmental Health Perspectives 105(8): 802-811.
Open scientific literatureSwan SH. 2008. Environmental phthalate exposure in relation to reproductive outcomes and other health endpoints in humans. Environ Res 108(2): 177-84.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2003RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 41,589,2003
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2003RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982- 41,589,2003
RTECS®- Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 1978RTECS®- Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. (London, UK) V.1-19, 1963-81. For publisher information, see FCTOD7. 16,415,1978
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1972RTECS®- Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. (American Pharmaceutical Assoc., 2215 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20037) V.50- 1961- 61,51,1972
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1944RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10- 82,377,1944
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1944RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 82,377,1944
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1985RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76- 16,61,1985
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1985RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 16,61,1985
RTECS®- Oyo Yakuri 1987RTECS®- Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. (Oyo Yakuri Kenkyukai, CPO Box 180, Sendai 980-91, Japan) V.1- -1967 33,387,1987
RTECS®- Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development 1993RTECS®- Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968- 48,33,1993
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1987RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959- 88,255,1987
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1982RTECS®- Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977- 10,379,1982

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