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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Dieldrin


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Dieldrin is a banned insecticide that is persistent and bioaccumulative, and was historically used on corn, cotton and citrus; it also forms in the environment as a breakdown product of the pesticide aldrin.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
8
8
-
Water utilities
19
19
-
People Served
1,700,044
1,700,044
-

Health Concerns for Dieldrin:


Dieldrin Exposure by State

Water utilities in 8 states have reported detecting Dieldrin in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Dieldrin contaminationWater suppliers reporting Dieldrin above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Hawaii2831,9252831,925
New Jersey1253,0451253,045
Delaware4241,7974241,797
New York6208,3136208,313
California2104,1152104,115
Maryland225,184225,184
Florida120,000120,000
North Carolina115,665115,665
Total191,700,044191,700,044

The Most Polluted Communities

19 water utilities reported detecting Dieldrin in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Dieldrin level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Luke / Newpage Luke Mill
Luke, MD
1843 of 110.13 ppb
(0 to 0.5 ppb)
2Black Creek Apts
Esopus, NY
801 of 10.11 ppb
(0.11 ppb)
3Town of Henlopen Acres
Rehoboth, DE
9991 of 40.03 ppb
(0 to 0.1 ppb)
4WA of Western Nassau
Floral Park, NY
120,00013 of 360.02 ppb
(0 to 0.12 ppb)
5United Water- New Jersey
Delran, NJ
253,0451 of 20.02 ppb
(0 to 0.04 ppb)
6Artesian Water Company
Newark, DE
201,00020 of 830.02 ppb
(0 to 0.55 ppb)
7Laurel Water Department
Laurel, DE
3,6681 of 40.01 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)
8Board of Water Supply (Honolulu/Windward/Pearl Harbor)
Honolulu, HI
661,00443 of 700.01 ppb
(0 to 0.04 ppb)
9Brookwood Comm Wtr System
Fayetteville, NC
15,6654 of 40< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.12 ppb)
10Port Washington Wd
Port Washington, NY
34,0008 of 30< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Dieldrin

StandardDescriptionLevel
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.<0.01 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.<0.01 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.<0.01 ppb-0.2 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.2 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.5 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.5 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb

Testing Summary for Dieldrin

Are tests routinely required for Dieldrin by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Dieldrin (2004-2009):13,872 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1991
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1979
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Soviet Genetics 1966
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 1986
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Molecular Cancer Therapeutics (Philadelphia, PA : American Association for Cancer Research) V 2003
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Heredity 1977
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- "Insecticide Biochemistry and Physiology," Wilkinson, C 1976
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of nervous system toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans National Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans United Nations Environment Programme/POPs Treaty
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife National Library of Medicine HazMap
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of nervous system toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity Jankovic, J, 1996

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - moderate evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of wildlife and the environment disruption European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Guillette, L, 1996
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of hematologic toxicity or allergies CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as very toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 1990
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity Merck & Co
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) National Library of Medicine HazMap

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingDIELDRIN•Very toxic
•Very toxic in contact with skin
•Toxic
•Toxic if swallowed
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsDIELDRIN• P
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsDIELDRIN•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemDIELDRIN•EPA: known endocrine disruptor
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsDIELDRIN•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
National Library of Medicine HazMapDIELDRIN•Anemia: Anemia, Hemolytic;
•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: In 1974, EPA banned all uses except termite control. In 1987, EPA banned al uses. [ATSDR ToxFAQs];
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 0.25 mg/m3;
•Bioaccumulates: Yes;
•Other Poison: Organochlorine Pesticide;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 0.25 mg/m3;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 50 mg/m3;MA: 0.25 mg/m3,
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsDIELDRINBanned under the Aahrus Protocol for Persistent Organic Pollutants
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsDIELDRIN•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Great Lakes Binational Strategy, Tier 1 concern (highest), targeted for phase-out
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernDIELDRIN•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs TreatyDIELDRIN•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for restrictions under international treaty (Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, or POPs Convention)
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)DIELDRIN•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensDIELDRIN•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensDIELDRIN•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsDIELDRIN
California EPA Proposition 65DIELDRIN•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004DIELDRIN•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
Guillette, L, 1996DIELDRIN•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 1990DIELDRIN•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
Jankovic, J, 1996DIELDRIN•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Merck & CoDIELDRIN•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensDIELDRIN•Cancer hazards: recognized
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionDIELDRINHH-CAT2;WF-CAT2
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007DIELDRIN• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Insecticide Biochemistry and Physiology," Wilkinson, C 1976DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (duck lym)
RTECS®- Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 1986DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mammal fbr)
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1980DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (rat oth)
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1980DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (rat orl)
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1977DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1979DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse oth)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1991DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Journal of Heredity 1977DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Molecular Cancer Therapeutics (Philadelphia, PA : American Association for Cancer Research) V 2003DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis ( human fbr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human mmr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1982DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human hla)
RTECS®- Soviet Genetics 1966DIELDRIN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse ipr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsAarhus LRTAP. 1998. Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, United Nations Environment Program.
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs TreatyUNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2001. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) — POPs Treaty.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationGuillette, L. J., and E. Guillette. Environmental Contaminants and Reproductive Abnormalities in Wildlife: Implications for Public Health? Toxicology and Industrial Health. 12(3): 537-550. 1996., Illinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationJankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationMerck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- "Insecticide Biochemistry and Physiology," Wilkinson, C 1976RTECS®- "Insecticide Biochemistry and Physiology," Wilkinson, C.F., ed., New York, Plenum Pub. Corp., 1976 -,555,1976
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RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1980RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 45,101,1980
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1980RTECS®- Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 40,1157,1980
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RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1979RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 3,10,1979
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1991RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 17,196,1991
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 35,300,2000
RTECS®- Journal of Heredity 1977RTECS®- Journal of Heredity. (American Genetic Assoc., 818 18th St., NW, Washington, DC 20006) V.5- 1914- 68,184,1977
RTECS®- Molecular Cancer Therapeutics (Philadelphia, PA : American Association for Cancer Research) V 2003RTECS®- Molecular Cancer Therapeutics (Philadelphia, PA : American Association for Cancer Research) V.1- 18,127,2003
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