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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Dichloromethane is a widely-used paint remover, solvent and metal degreasing agent; it is discharged into the environment from the manufacture of chemicals, textiles, electronics, metals and plastics, pharmaceuticals and pesticides. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
37
37
14
Water utilities
841
841
21
People Served
20,146,116
20,146,116
156,255

Health Concerns for Dichloromethane (methylene chloride):


Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 37 states have reported detecting Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Florida894,268,355894,268,355
California723,136,402723,136,402
Texas452,870,526452,870,526
Pennsylvania502,659,383502,659,383
Ohio181,571,035181,571,035
Wisconsin164918,889164918,889
Alabama16758,96616758,966
Illinois80622,91780622,917
Nebraska4531,4964531,496
North Carolina31434,32931434,329
Washington17430,02317430,023
New Jersey9378,4449378,444
Delaware22236,53122236,531
Alaska19228,45119228,451
Massachusetts10226,68510226,685
Minnesota20207,64820207,648
New Mexico36164,40636164,406
Missouri2388,6382388,638
Rhode Island278,969278,969
Indiana1471,3731471,373
New York1966,6021966,602
Iowa1665,2831665,283
Michigan858,230858,230
Oklahoma827,183827,183
Arkansas89,79189,791
Connecticut49,66549,665
Maryland57,61657,616
Virginia86,51586,515
New Hampshire93,21493,214
Montana33,09533,095
Kentucky13,03313,033
Idaho16871687
Oregon46804680
Maine34323432
Wyoming12541254
Vermont12001200
Utah11701170
Total84120,146,11684120,146,116

The Most Polluted Communities

841 water utilities reported detecting Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Mettler County Water District
Bakersfield, CA
1461 of 110 ppb
(10 ppb)
2House Water System
House, NM
801 of 25.65 ppb
(0 to 11.3 ppb)
3Springer Water System
Springer, NM
2,0001 of 33.83 ppb
(0 to 11.5 ppb)
4Watkins Subdivision
Camdenton, MO
311 of 22.52 ppb
(0 to 5.04 ppb)
5High Rolls Community Water Users Coop
High Rolls, NM
3002 of 42.47 ppb
(0 to 8.39 ppb)
6Folly Farms
VA
301 of 12.2 ppb
(2.2 ppb)
7St. Clair Ranchos Mutual Water Co.
Bakersfield, CA
681 of 12.2 ppb
(2.2 ppb)
8Allegan County Services Center
Allegan, MI
1011 of 12.2 ppb
(2.2 ppb)
9Burns Bd. of Public Utilities
Burns, WY
2541 of 22.13 ppb
(0 to 4.25 ppb)
10Mounds View
St Paul, MN
12,5503 of 42.03 ppb
(0 to 4.4 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.4 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4.6 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.500 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10000 ppb

Testing Summary for Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)

Are tests routinely required for Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) (2004-2009):33,937 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations7
Monitoring Violations4,303
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Possible human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
One or more human case studies show possible cancer findings NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1989
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- In Vitro 1978
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1990
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1994
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at low doses RTECS®- European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene 1976
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity Klaassen, C, 1996
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicology 1976
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity Frazier , L, 1998

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,171,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at very low doses RTECS®- European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene 1976
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at low doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Everything Added to Food



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingDICHLOROMETHANE•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensDICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE)•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsMETHYLENE CHLORIDE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsMETHYLENE CHLORIDE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsMETHYLENE CHLORIDE• S
U.S. - Ingredients Prohibited and Restricted in Cosmetics by FDA RegulationsMETHYLENE CHLORIDE•Prohibited for use in cosmetics by FDA (US)
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsMETHYLENE CHLORIDE•Use is restricted in Canadian cosmetics
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsMETHYLENE CHLORIDE•Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications
•Safe for brief discontinuous use followed by thorough rinsing
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsDICHLOROMETHANE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
FDA Everything Added to FoodMETHYLENE CHLORIDE• Fully up-to-date toxicology information has been sought.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListMETHANE, DICHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a low human health priority and was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)DICHLOROMETHANE•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveDICHLOROMETHANE•Priority substance in EU water policy
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsMETHYLENE CHLORIDE (DICHLOROMETHANE)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapMETHYLENE CHLORIDE•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: The methylene chloride standard (29 CFR 1910.1052) requires medical surveillance when the worker is exposed at or above the action level for 30 or more days per year, or at or above the STEL for 10 or more days per year.;HE: Hepatotoxin, Second
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensDICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE)•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsMETHYLENE CHLORIDE•Pesticide inerts of toxicological concern according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensMETHYLENE CHLORIDE•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionDICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE)•Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary GlandMETHYLENE CHLORIDE•Induces mammary tumors (National Toxicology Program classification)
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)DICHLOROMETHANE•Persistent toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsDICHLOROMETHANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE)•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004DICHLOROMETHANE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
Frazier , L, 1998DICHLOROMETHANE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Klaassen, C, 1996DICHLOROMETHANE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensDICHLOROMETHANE•Cancer hazards: recognized
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseMETHYLENE CHLORIDE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007DICHLOROMETHANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986DICHLOROMETHANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1994DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1990DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (mouse ihl)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1982DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene 1976DICHLOROMETHANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- In Vitro 1978DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (rat emb)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,171,1971DICHLOROMETHANE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Phage Inhibition Capacity (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (hamster ovr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human fbr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994DICHLOROMETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994DICHLOROMETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993DICHLOROMETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1989DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat orl)
RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987DICHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Toxicology 1976DICHLOROMETHANE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
U.S. - Ingredients Prohibited and Restricted in Cosmetics by FDA RegulationsFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration), 2006. Ingredients Prohibited and Restricted by FDA Regulations. FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Cosmetics and Colors. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/cos-210.html.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsCIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
FDA Everything Added to FoodFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
NTP - Tumor Induction in Mammary GlandNTP (National Toxicology Program) 2006. Chemicals Associated with Site-Specific Tumor Induction in Mammary Gland.
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationFrazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf., Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
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RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1990RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 15,221,1990
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 20,211,1992
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 35,300,2000
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RTECS®- In Vitro 1978RTECS®- In Vitro. (Rockville, MD) V.1-20, 1965-85. For publisher information, see ICDBEO. 14,290,1978
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,171,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,171,1971
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RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 367,143,1996
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 419,13,1998
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 538,41,2003
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1978RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 56,245,1978
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 577S,1,2005
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 81,203,1981
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 90,91,1981
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1989RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 9,61,1989
RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 1987RTECS®- Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry. (Gordon & Breach Science Pub. Inc., 1 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.3(3/4)- 13,205,1987
RTECS®- Toxicology 1976RTECS®- Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 6,173,1976

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