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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Dichlorodifluoromethane


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12) is a chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant; it was banned under the Montreal Protocol as of 2000 because of its ozone-depleting properties.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
18
-
-
Water utilities
151
-
-
People Served
6,918,827
-
-

Health Concerns for Dichlorodifluoromethane:


Dichlorodifluoromethane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 18 states have reported detecting Dichlorodifluoromethane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Dichlorodifluoromethane contamination
SystemsPopulation
California424,117,851
New York261,077,616
Alabama1585,000
New Jersey4290,949
Wisconsin11286,368
Nebraska3266,036
Massachusetts10128,330
Minnesota6102,484
Delaware238,430
North Carolina89,521
Washington57,498
Virginia22,480
New Hampshire132,413
Alaska72,353
Maine8804
Missouri1611
Vermont150
Rhode Island133
Total1516,918,827

The Most Polluted Communities

151 water utilities reported detecting Dichlorodifluoromethane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Dichlorodifluoromethane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1San Joaquin County - Wilkinson Manor
Stockton, CA
6704 of 618.43 ppb
(0 to 42.4 ppb)
2Tokay Park Water Co
Sacramento, CA
5251 of 112 ppb
(12 ppb)
3Ykhc Hospital - Bethel
Bethel, AK
5102 of 211.55 ppb
(8.1 to 15 ppb)
4Heatherstone West S/D
Raleigh, NC
2451 of 16.6 ppb
(6.6 ppb)
5Island Nursing Home
Deer Isle, ME
2401 of 14.1 ppb
(4.1 ppb)
6Barnstable Water Company (Hyannis)
Barnstable, MA
34,0004 of 83.76 ppb
(0 to 11.5 ppb)
7M & M Mobile Park
Oak Harbor, WA
515 of 53.18 ppb
(1.4 to 4.5 ppb)
8Meridian Heights Water District
Olympia, WA
1303 of 33.1 ppb
(1.9 to 3.9 ppb)
9Scanlon
Cloquet, MN
8441 of 12.8 ppb
(2.8 ppb)
10Town of Carver
Carver, MA
4141 of 22.4 ppb
(0 to 4.8 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Dichlorodifluoromethane

StandardDescriptionLevel
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.1000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.40000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.40000 ppb

Testing Summary for Dichlorodifluoromethane

Are tests routinely required for Dichlorodifluoromethane by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Dichlorodifluoromethane (2004-2009):20,877 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,78,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListMETHANE, DICHLORODIFLUORO-•This chemical was deemed a low human health priority and was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007METHANE, DICHLORODIFLUORO-• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,78,1971METHANE, DICHLORODIFLUORO-• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994METHANE, DICHLORODIFLUORO-• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994METHANE, DICHLORODIFLUORO-• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994METHANE, DICHLORODIFLUORO-• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993METHANE, DICHLORODIFLUORO-• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,78,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,78,1971
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993

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