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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Dichloroacetic acid


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Dichloroacetic acid is a disinfection byproduct regulated by EPA as one of five haloacetic acids that are formed when chlorine, chloramines or other disinfectants react with organic and inorganic matter in water. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
37
37
23
Water utilities
12,002
12,002
311
People Served
128,997,414
128,997,414
1,285,975

Health Concerns for Dichloroacetic acid:


Dichloroacetic acid Exposure by State

Water utilities in 37 states have reported detecting Dichloroacetic acid in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Dichloroacetic acid contaminationWater suppliers reporting Dichloroacetic acid above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Texas2,08717,593,1592,08717,593,159
New York1,15414,219,1971,15414,219,197
Illinois1,16911,715,5671,16911,715,567
California36510,303,06636510,303,066
Florida51510,139,05651510,139,056
Ohio6869,307,6906869,307,690
New Jersey3207,934,4973207,934,497
North Carolina9466,873,0739466,873,073
Maryland1744,966,1811744,966,181
Michigan2414,048,5222414,048,522
Washington3503,681,2993503,681,299
Missouri4833,497,6174833,497,617
Virginia3833,103,2553833,103,255
Minnesota4243,046,3024243,046,302
Utah1182,789,3061182,789,306
Arkansas6152,788,7496152,788,749
Wisconsin3222,638,9393222,638,939
Arizona702,441,551702,441,551
Iowa6502,289,5796502,289,579
New Mexico1391,005,0551391,005,055
Nebraska73942,32273942,322
Delaware100761,580100761,580
Maine83511,30983511,309
Montana131489,939131489,939
Alaska154483,702154483,702
Nevada7271,8257271,825
North Dakota86238,51886238,518
Idaho3237,3343237,334
Hawaii27215,07927215,079
Vermont110211,436110211,436
South Carolina6110,1506110,150
Rhode Island558,572558,572
Connecticut142,000142,000
Colorado129,500129,500
Oregon19,10819,108
Wyoming22,02522,025
West Virginia11,35511,355
Total12,002128,997,41412,002128,997,414

The Most Polluted Communities

12,002 water utilities reported detecting Dichloroacetic acid in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Dichloroacetic acid level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Magnolia Village
Edgewater, FL
3942 of 2140 ppb
(130 to 150 ppb)
2Everglades City
Everglades City, FL
2,5002 of 2109.5 ppb
(59 to 160 ppb)
3Horseshoe Beach Wtp
Horseshoe Beach, FL
8205 of 591.16 ppb
(5.8 to 180 ppb)
4Ancient Oaks RV Resort
Okeechobee, FL
7452 of 289.9 ppb
(52.8 to 127 ppb)
5Lake Caroline Wtp
Ruther Glen, VA
3,37017 of 1885.39 ppb
(0 to 123 ppb)
6Gulkana Village
Gakona, AK
8313 of 1385.14 ppb
(3.88 to 157 ppb)
7Vallenar View Mobile Home Park
Ketchikan, AK
22516 of 1784.31 ppb
(0 to 170 ppb)
8Lake Manor Mhp
Jensen Beach, FL
1002 of 278.35 ppb
(55.7 to 101 ppb)
9Meadowlark Campground
Moore Haven, FL
2601 of 176.4 ppb
(76.4 ppb)
10Spanish Lakes Country Club Village
Fort Pierce, FL
2,3312 of 273.75 ppb
(60.5 to 87 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Dichloroacetic acid

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.7 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.60 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5000 ppb

Testing Summary for Dichloroacetic acid

Are tests routinely required for Dichloroacetic acid by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Dichloroacetic acid (2004-2009):22,925 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.8 per year

Violation Summary for Dichloroacetic acid

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Dichloroacetic acid since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations1
Monitoring Violations6
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1996
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V 2004
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicologist 2006
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2006

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at very low doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingDICHLOROACETIC ACID•Corrosive
•Causes severe burns
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensDICHLOROACETIC ACID•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListACETIC ACID, DICHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority even though it did not meet the strict criteria of the categorization exercise of CEPA. The chemical was flagged for suspected carcinogenic concerns.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)DICHLOROACETIC ACID•Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (EPA classification)
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensDICHLOROACETIC ACID•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
California EPA Proposition 65DICHLOROACETIC ACID•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens2,2-DICHLOROACETIC ACID•Cancer hazards: recognized
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007DICHLOROACETIC ACID• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986DICHLOROACETIC ACID• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1996DICHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998DICHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2006DICHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse emb)
RTECS®- Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V 2004DICHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2006DICHLOROACETIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse orl)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986 -,570,1986
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1996RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 27,1,1996
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 413,265,1998
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2006RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 22,443,2006
RTECS®- Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V 2004RTECS®- Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, 77,243,2004
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2006RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981- 90,101,2006

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