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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate is a placticizer and solvent released as a pollutant from industrial chemical factories, sewage treatment facilities and iron foundries. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
24
2
-
Water utilities
215
2
-
People Served
4,927,752
3,640
-

Health Concerns for Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate:


Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate Exposure by State

Water utilities in 24 states have reported detecting Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate contaminationWater suppliers reporting Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Maine7164,08012,840
New Mexico12132,0091800
Maryland51,929,85100
Florida151,259,37300
North Carolina80486,42100
Utah2312,70000
Delaware2201,36900
Massachusetts2127,50000
Kentucky387,05200
Texas553,65200
Iowa2741,90800
California226,81500
Indiana425,42900
Nebraska223,24000
Rhode Island121,90000
Illinois410,44000
Connecticut1710,19900
Arkansas44,78500
New York23,90000
Wisconsin123,82700
New Hampshire386000
Virginia118700
Montana216500
Idaho19000
Total2154,927,75223,640

The Most Polluted Communities

215 water utilities reported detecting Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Mora Mdwca
Mora, NM
8001 of 241.25 ppb
(0 to 82.5 ppb)
2Rio EN Medio Mdwca
Tesuque, NM
1301 of 39.87 ppb
(0 to 29.6 ppb)
3LA Cienega Lakeside Mhp
Santa Fe, NM
601 of 29.6 ppb
(0 to 19.2 ppb)
4Tesuque Mdwca
Tesuque, NM
3701 of 29.6 ppb
(0 to 19.2 ppb)
5Loring Utilities
Limestone, ME
1,4091 of 37.33 ppb
(0 to 22 ppb)
6Stockdale Ranchos Mutual Water Co
Bakersfield, CA
3001 of 15.7 ppb
(5.7 ppb)
7Eagle Chateau Apts
Kenosha, WI
1251 of 14.8 ppb
(4.8 ppb)
8Madawaska Water District
Madawaska, ME
2,8401 of 93.78 ppb
(0 to 34 ppb)
9Hog Creek Wsc
Valley Mills, TX
6571 of 13.6 ppb
(3.6 ppb)
10Mountain View Park Estates
Columbia, NH
451 of 32.9 ppb
(0 to 8.7 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate

StandardDescriptionLevel
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.30 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.200 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.400 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.400 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.400 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20000 ppb

Testing Summary for Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate

Are tests routinely required for Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate (2004-2009):18,324 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.5 per year

Violation Summary for Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Di(2-Ethylhexyl) adipate since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations1,866
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1975
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1981
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1986
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5927
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show blood effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1982
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicology 1997
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicology 1997
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Beratergremium fuer umweltrelevante Altstoffe (BUA 1997
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1988
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2003
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2006
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2006

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1973
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2003

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show biochemical changes at high doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood RTECS®- Toxicology 1997
One or more animal studies show biochemical changes at high doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood RTECS®- Beratergremium fuer umweltrelevante Altstoffe (BUA 1997
One or more animal studies show biochemical changes at high doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1988

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsDIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE•Safe as used in cosmetics according to industry panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR)
•Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsDIOCTYL ADIPATE•Safe as used in cosmetics according to industry panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR)
•Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListHEXANEDIOIC ACID, BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL) ESTER•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic and suspected of aquatic toxicity.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemDI(2-ETHYLHEXYL)ADIPATE•EPA: suspected endocrine disruptor
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL)ADIPATE•Group C: Possible human carcinogen (EPA classification)
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionBIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL)ADIPATEHH-CAT3b;WF-CAT3b
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListDI-(2-ETHYLHEXYL) ADIPATE•The chemical has been reported as used in fragrance compounds by IFRA affiliated member companies in 2008.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensDI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) ADIPATE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsADIPIC ACID, BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL) ESTER•Pesticide inerts of toxicological concern according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsBIS(2ETHYLHEXYL) ESTERHEXANEDIOIC ACID•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Japanese National Institute of Health SciencesBIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL) ADIPATE•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1988DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• biochemical - Lipids, including transport (rat TDLo)
• liver - Other changes (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Beratergremium fuer umweltrelevante Altstoffe (BUA 1997DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• liver - Changes in liver weight (mouse TDLo)
• biochemical - Lipids, including transport (mouse TDLo)
• liver - Liver function tests impaired (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1987DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat orl)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1987DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat orl)
RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1986DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• cancer - liver tumors (mouse TD)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1987DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1973DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Other developmental abnormalities (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Phage Inhibition Capacity (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Phage Inhibition Capacity (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5927DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• cancer - liver tumors (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1981DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• cancer - liver tumors (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2003DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• reproductive - Growth statistics (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Hepatobiliary system (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Parturition (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Viability index (rat TDLo)
• metabolic - Weight loss or decreased weight gain (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2006DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• metabolic - Weight loss or decreased weight gain (rat TDLo)
• liver - Changes in liver weight (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1975DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Dominant Lethal Strain (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1975DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Dominant Lethal Strain (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1982DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• blood - Changes in serum composition (eg., TP, bilirubin, cholesterol) (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology 1997DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE• metabolic - Weight loss or decreased weight gain (rat TDLo)
• liver - Changes in liver weight (rat TDLo)
• biochemical - Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.) (rat TDLo)
• liver - Other changes (mouse TDLo)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsCIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListIFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationJapanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1988RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974- Suppl.12,274,1988
RTECS®- Beratergremium fuer umweltrelevante Altstoffe (BUA 1997RTECS®- Beratergremium fuer umweltrelevante Altstoffe (BUA. Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker. Weinheim ; New York : VCH) 1992- -,153,1997
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