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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Chrysene


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Chrysene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) released from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
6
6
-
Water utilities
12
12
-
People Served
1,178,105
1,178,105
-

Health Concerns for Chrysene:


Chrysene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 6 states have reported detecting Chrysene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Chrysene contaminationWater suppliers reporting Chrysene above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
New Jersey3834,2473834,247
Delaware1201,0001201,000
Rhode Island3116,7093116,709
Texas219,413219,413
Arkansas23,96423,964
California12,77212,772
Total121,178,105121,178,105

The Most Polluted Communities

12 water utilities reported detecting Chrysene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Chrysene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1NJ American Water Company
Shorthills, NJ
217,2301 of 10.24 ppb
(0.24 ppb)
2Lost Hills Utility District
Lost Hills, CA
2,7721 of 20.12 ppb
(0 to 0.24 ppb)
3Butler Water Dept
Butler, NJ
7,6301 of 10.12 ppb
(0.12 ppb)
4West Houston Mobile Home Comm
Houston, TX
5251 of 10.08 ppb
(0.08 ppb)
5New Jersey American - Elizabethtown
Plainfield, NJ
609,3871 of 10.06 ppb
(0.06 ppb)
6City of Wichita Falls
Wichita Falls, TX
18,8881 of 50.06 ppb
(0 to 0.28 ppb)
7Hampton Waterworks
Hampton, AR
1,7702 of 50.05 ppb
(0 to 0.17 ppb)
8Rector Waterworks
Rector, AR
2,1942 of 130.01 ppb
(0 to 0.09 ppb)
9Artesian Water Company
Newark, DE
201,0001 of 73< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.53 ppb)
10Town of Cumberland
Cumberland, RI
21,9001 of 19< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.1 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Chrysene

StandardDescriptionLevel
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.<0.01 ppb

Testing Summary for Chrysene

Are tests routinely required for Chrysene by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Chrysene (2004-2009):2,606 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen European Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Possible mutagen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Mutagen - limited evidence European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Developments in Toxicology and Environtal Science 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1991
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- International Journal of Cancer 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1979
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology 2004
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutagenesis 2005
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2007

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of occupational hazards European Union - Classification & Labelling

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingCHRYSENE•May cause cancer
•May cause cancer
•Limited evidence of mutagenic effect
•Possible risk of irreversible effects
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensCHRYSENE•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsCHRYSENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsCHRYSENE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
National Library of Medicine HazMapCHRYSENE•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 0.2 mg/m3;
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsCHRYSENEObligates Parties to reduce emissions under Aahrus Protocol for Persistent Organic Pollutants
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)CHRYSENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsCHRYSENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Great Lakes Binational Strategy, Tier 2 concern (moderate), targeting for monitoring/testing
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernCHRYSENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsCHRYSENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for waste reporting under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)CHRYSENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, priority chemical for voluntary waste/emission reductions
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)CHRYSENE•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensCHRYSENE•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensCHRYSENE•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
California EPA Proposition 65CHRYSENE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensCHRYSENE•Cancer hazards: recognized
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListCHRYSENE•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic, genotoxic, persistent, and toxic to aquatic organisms.
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1982CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1984CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (mouse skn)
RTECS®- Developments in Toxicology and Environtal Science 1982CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells ( human lym)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1991CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse skn)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- International Journal of Cancer 1977CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 2005CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells ( human oth)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human fbr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2005CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse emb)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2007CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1979CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ipr)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1980CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster kdy)
RTECS®- Toxicology 2004CHRYSENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test ( human lvr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsAarhus LRTAP. 1998. Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, United Nations Environment Program.
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
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RTECS®- Developments in Toxicology and Environtal Science 1982RTECS®- Developments in Toxicology and Environtal Science. (Elsevier Science, New York, NY) V.1-15, 1977-87. Discontinued 10,277,1982
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1991RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 17,163,1991
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 19,259,1992
RTECS®- International Journal of Cancer 1977RTECS®- International Journal of Cancer. (International Union Against Cancer, 3 rue du Conseil- General, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland) V.1- 19,642,1977
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 2005RTECS®- Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 20,217,2005
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RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 131,101,1984
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RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 515,85,2002
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