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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Chromium (total)


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Chromium is a metal that pollutes drinking water due to discharge from steel and pulp mills and erosion of natural deposits. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
42
5
5
Water utilities
6,995
6
6
People Served
74,745,007
157,673
157,673

Health Concerns for Chromium (total):


Chromium (total) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 42 states have reported detecting Chromium (total) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Chromium (total) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Chromium (total) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California85120,419,2021156,500
Texas7845,865,9201660
Illinois1974,985,1902373
New York2632,490,835170
New Hampshire3970,606170
Florida5827,534,26700
Arizona3683,964,93200
Ohio1633,096,37400
Wisconsin7252,976,63300
Indiana2822,563,78700
Nevada632,233,35300
Maryland872,148,85200
Pennsylvania1712,019,03800
New Jersey811,931,02500
Missouri5231,641,66200
Kentucky451,385,90000
Nebraska3811,293,07300
Hawaii421,075,24600
Connecticut74921,13800
Delaware175847,64600
Utah25729,21800
Massachusetts50705,40400
New Mexico192649,72300
Oregon67577,38300
Maine314513,46800
Idaho80453,99400
Oklahoma39333,59500
Arkansas68325,68600
Alaska106321,96400
South Dakota64203,59300
Minnesota7164,89200
Washington30163,30400
Wyoming158,18200
Rhode Island619,15600
Alabama518,73300
Montana2015,21200
North Carolina1410,32300
Michigan57,72600
Iowa24,17200
West Virginia22,76200
Virginia11,63800
Vermont120000
Total6,99574,745,0076157,673

The Most Polluted Communities

6,995 water utilities reported detecting Chromium (total) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Chromium (total) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Hyde Park Terrace Apartments
Poughkeepsie, NY
701 of 1180 ppb
(180 ppb)
2Chester College of NE /Douglas
NH
701 of 1104.9 ppb
(104.9 ppb)
3Spanish Lakes Country Club Village
Fort Pierce, FL
2,3311 of 1100 ppb
(100 ppb)
4Country Oaks
Ocala, FL
921 of 1100 ppb
(100 ppb)
5Esperanza Water Service Co Inc
Pecos, TX
6602 of 285.65 ppb
(29.3 to 142 ppb)
6Howell Water System
Howell, UT
2601 of 171.9 ppb
(71.9 ppb)
7Town of Wenden
Wenden, AZ
6501 of 170 ppb
(70 ppb)
8Tucker Acres Mutual Water Co.
Calistoga, CA
2001 of 160 ppb
(60 ppb)
9Village Green Mobile Home Park
Kokomo, IN
2101 of 157 ppb
(57 ppb)
10Indiantown Company Inc.
Indiantown, FL
5,0002 of 256.75 ppb
(13.5 to 100 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Chromium (total)

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb

Testing Summary for Chromium (total)

Are tests routinely required for Chromium (total) by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Chromium (total) (2004-2009):29,352 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Chromium (total)

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Chromium (total) since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations1
Monitoring Violations1,182
Reporting Violations0

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human immune and respiratory toxicant or allergen - strong evidence Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at very low doses RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1955
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1955
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicologist 2008
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at moderate doses RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung 1942

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at low doses RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1972
Limited evidence of toxicity A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 1990
Limited evidence of toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show no adverse effects at high doses EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsCHROMIUM, NOT HEXAVALENT• ARS
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsCHROMIUM, NOT HEXAVALENT• Asthmagen sensitizer
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsCHROMIUM, NOT HEXAVALENT• Asthmagen sensitizer
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsCHROMIUM•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListCHROMIUM•This chemical was deemed a moderate human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsCHROMIUM; CHROMIUM METAL•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsCHROMIUM COMPOUNDS -- TRI•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 1990CHROMIUM•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterCHROMIUM (III)•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005CHROMIUM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006CHROMIUM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007CHROMIUM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1972CHROMIUM• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1955CHROMIUM• cancer - blood tumor formations - equivocal (rat TDLo)
• cancer - gastrointestinal tumor formations - equivocal (rat TDLo)
• cancer - Tumors at site of application (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003CHROMIUM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lng)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2008CHROMIUM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lym)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003CHROMIUM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lng)
RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung 1942CHROMIUM• cancer - musculoskeletal tumor formations - equivocal (rabbit TDLo)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Nemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1972RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936- 37(10),27,1972
RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1955RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8. 16,447,1955
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- -1981 72,219,2003
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2008RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981- 12,430,2008
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981- 72,219,2003
RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung 1942RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung. (Berlin, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-75, 1903-71. For publisher information, see JCROD7. 52,425,1942

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