The Power of Information

National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Chromium (hexavalent)


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Chromium is a metal that pollutes drinking water due to discharge from steel and pulp mills and erosion of natural deposits. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
2
1
1
Water utilities
247
1
1
People Served
31,175,185
156,500
156,500

Health Concerns for Chromium (hexavalent):


Chromium (hexavalent) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 2 states have reported detecting Chromium (hexavalent) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Chromium (hexavalent) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Chromium (hexavalent) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California24631,175,0611156,500
Ohio112400
Total24731,175,1851156,500

The Most Polluted Communities

247 water utilities reported detecting Chromium (hexavalent) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Chromium (hexavalent) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1City of Eureka
Eureka, CA
28,3342 of 293 ppb
(93 ppb)
2Santa Ynez Rancho Estates Mwc
Santa Ynez, CA
2941 of 125.15 ppb
(25.15 ppb)
3California Water Service Co. - Dixon
San Jose, CA
9,6001 of 125 ppb
(25 ppb)
4Hidden Valley Lake Csd
Hidden Valley Lake, CA
6,7579 of 923.5 ppb
(20 to 28 ppb)
5Paradise Lake Mwc
Salinas, CA
1801 of 120 ppb
(20 ppb)
6Volta Community Sd
Volta, CA
1501 of 120 ppb
(20 ppb)
7City of Coachella
Coachella, CA
24,2823 of 319.83 ppb
(18.67 to 21.5 ppb)
8Sbndo County Service Area 70j
Victorville, CA
4,82122 of 2219.1 ppb
(15 to 23 ppb)
9City of Watsonville
Watsonville, CA
62,0001 of 119 ppb
(19 ppb)
10Shady Oaks Trailer Park
Orland, CA
481 of 119 ppb
(19 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Chromium (hexavalent)

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb

Testing Summary for Chromium (hexavalent)

Are tests routinely required for Chromium (hexavalent) by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Chromium (hexavalent) (2004-2009):454 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.8 per year

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human immune and respiratory toxicant or allergen - strong evidence Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at very low doses RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1955
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1955
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicologist 2008
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at moderate doses RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung 1942

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at low doses RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1972
Limited evidence of toxicity A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 1990
Limited evidence of toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show no adverse effects at high doses EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsCHROMIUM, NOT HEXAVALENT• ARS
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsCHROMIUM, NOT HEXAVALENT• Asthmagen sensitizer
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsCHROMIUM, NOT HEXAVALENT• Asthmagen sensitizer
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsCHROMIUM•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListCHROMIUM•This chemical was deemed a moderate human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsCHROMIUM; CHROMIUM METAL•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsCHROMIUM COMPOUNDS -- TRI•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 1990CHROMIUM•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterCHROMIUM (III)•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005CHROMIUM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006CHROMIUM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007CHROMIUM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1972CHROMIUM• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1955CHROMIUM• cancer - blood tumor formations - equivocal (rat TDLo)
• cancer - gastrointestinal tumor formations - equivocal (rat TDLo)
• cancer - Tumors at site of application (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003CHROMIUM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lng)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2008CHROMIUM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lym)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003CHROMIUM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lng)
RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung 1942CHROMIUM• cancer - musculoskeletal tumor formations - equivocal (rabbit TDLo)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Nemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1972RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936- 37(10),27,1972
RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1955RTECS®- Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8. 16,447,1955
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- -1981 72,219,2003
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2008RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981- 12,430,2008
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981- 72,219,2003
RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung 1942RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung. (Berlin, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-75, 1903-71. For publisher information, see JCROD7. 52,425,1942

"RTECS®" is a United States trademark owned and licensed under authority of the U.S. Government, by and through MDL Information Systems, Inc.