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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Chloromethane


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Chloromethane is a naturally occuring chemical that forms during combustion of plant material; it may be released from the manufacture of silicone, rubber and pesticides, and also forms as a byproduct of water disinfection.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
30
1
-
Water utilities
742
2
-
People Served
11,428,501
1,296
-

Health Concerns for Chloromethane:


Chloromethane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 30 states have reported detecting Chloromethane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Chloromethane contaminationWater suppliers reporting Chloromethane above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
New Mexico43,86221,296
California773,608,45900
Texas631,401,03800
North Carolina851,144,18800
Indiana361,043,34800
Wisconsin145855,26900
Nebraska3709,62000
New York65625,59700
Massachusetts31546,93200
New Jersey18347,64300
Delaware12220,69400
Alabama18200,57100
Ohio6176,18300
Rhode Island2116,00000
Iowa10114,11600
Minnesota1674,22500
Missouri1057,71100
Florida551,90100
Maine1830,60700
Arkansas1722,35800
Vermont814,11900
Alaska2011,61500
Virginia1711,22500
Montana78,99000
Illinois17,00000
Washington106,91000
Maryland75,58800
Nevada54,56300
New Hampshire224,08700
Michigan44,08200
Total74211,428,50121,296

The Most Polluted Communities

742 water utilities reported detecting Chloromethane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Chloromethane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Beacham Apartments NO 2
Jacksonville, NC
5001 of 126 ppb
(26 ppb)
2LA Association DE Agua DE Los Brazos
Los Ojos, NM
961 of 219.83 ppb
(0 to 39.65 ppb)
3Hyde Park Terrace Apartments
Poughkeepsie, NY
701 of 117 ppb
(17 ppb)
4Lumberton Mdwca
Lumberton, NM
1721 of 113.13 ppb
(13.13 ppb)
5Ykhc Hospital - Bethel
Bethel, AK
5102 of 29.75 ppb
(9.6 to 9.9 ppb)
6Deer Creek
Deer Creek, MN
3325 of 69.57 ppb
(0 to 24 ppb)
7Village of Midvale
Midvale, OH
2,3801 of 29.35 ppb
(0 to 18.7 ppb)
8Town of Middletown
Middletown, MD
3,9721 of 19 ppb
(9 ppb)
9City of Rankin
Rankin, TX
8001 of 18.55 ppb
(8.55 ppb)
10Village of Tijeras
Tijeras, NM
1,2001 of 57.77 ppb
(0 to 38.87 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Chloromethane

StandardDescriptionLevel
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.30 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.30 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.400 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.9000 ppb

Testing Summary for Chloromethane

Are tests routinely required for Chloromethane by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Chloromethane (2004-2009):21,521 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human developmental toxicant California EPA Proposition 65
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Cancer - limited evidence US EPA, Office of Emergency Response and Remediation
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008
Mutagen - limited evidence EPA Water Disinfection By-Products Carcinogenicity
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- HEW Publication (FDA 1978
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingCHLOROMETHANE•Extremely flammable
•Extremely flammable
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Harmful
•Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsCHLOROMETHANE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
EPA Water Disinfection By-Products CarcinogenicityCHLOROMETHANE•Low to moderate concern for potential carcinogenicity
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListMETHANE, CHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic and persistent.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)METHYL CHLORIDE•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)METHYL CHLORIDE•Carcinogenicity cannot be determined (EPA classification)
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsCHLOROMETHANE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsMETHYL CHLORIDE (CHLOROMETHANE)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapMETHYL CHLORIDE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 100 ppm, Ceiling(OSHA) = 200 ppm(300 ppm for 5-min peak in any 3 hrs);
•STEL (ACGIH) - Short-term exposure limits (ACGIH): 100 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 72000 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 50 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 4: burns readily;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 2000 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 10 ppm;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 50 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensMETHYL CHLORIDE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsMETHYL CHLORIDE•Pesticide inerts of toxicological concern according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensMETHYL CHLORIDE•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsCHLOROMETHANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65METHYL CHLORIDE•Developmental toxin: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004CHLOROMETHANE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterCHLOROMETHANE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996CHLOROMETHANE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204CHLOROMETHANE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensCHLOROMETHANE•Developmental toxicity hazards: recognized
US EPA, Office of Emergency Response and RemediationCHLOROMETHANE•Cancer hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007CHLOROMETHANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1984CHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat spr)
RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1982CHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- HEW Publication (FDA 1978CHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985CHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells ( human lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems ( human lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986CHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991CHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Phage Inhibition Capacity (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008CHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994CHLOROMETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994CHLOROMETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993CHLOROMETHANE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1985CHLOROMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Dominant Lethal Strain (rat ihl)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
EPA Water Disinfection By-Products CarcinogenicityEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2006. EPA Water Disinfection By-Products with Carcinogenicity Estimates. Last updated: 10 April 2006.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Frazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf., Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996., Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-PEND
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Office of Emergency Response and Remediation. Superfund Chemical Data Matrix. http://www.epa.gov/superfund/resources/scdm/index.htm
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1984RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 6,392,1984
RTECS®- Environmental Science Research 1982RTECS®- Environmental Science Research. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.1- 1972- 25,75,1982
RTECS®- HEW Publication (FDA 1978RTECS®- HEW Publication (FDA. United States). (Washington, DC) ?-1979(?). For publisher information, see HPFSDS. FDA-78-1046,1978
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 155,75,1985
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 162,219,1986
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 263,107,1991
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 652,122,2008
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1985RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 77,133,1985

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