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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Chloroethane


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Chloroethane is a volatile solvent used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, perfumes, insecticides and gasoline additives; it is also used as a refrigerant and anesthetic, and may form in tap water as a result of chlorination.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
19
-
-
Water utilities
75
-
-
People Served
1,362,649
-
-

Health Concerns for Chloroethane:


Chloroethane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 19 states have reported detecting Chloroethane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Chloroethane contamination
SystemsPopulation
Nebraska2514,414
New Jersey6306,901
New York18219,383
Florida283,165
Massachusetts476,904
Indiana663,655
California843,834
Minnesota523,991
Missouri412,132
Wisconsin37,583
Texas63,679
Delaware22,585
Arkansas12,483
Iowa1676
Montana1660
North Carolina2251
Vermont1200
New Hampshire2117
Washington136
Total751,362,649

The Most Polluted Communities

75 water utilities reported detecting Chloroethane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Chloroethane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Hollister Ranch Estates
Oakland, CA
1002 of 53.38 ppb
(0 to 13 ppb)
2Grand Mound Water Supply
Grand Moun, IA
6761 of 13.1 ppb
(3.1 ppb)
3Bluff Dale Wsc
Bluff Dale, TX
13 of 53.06 ppb
(0 to 7.14 ppb)
4Ennis Parc
Pleasant Valley, NY
1751 of 12 ppb
(2 ppb)
5Hunters Creek Mobile Home Park
Buffalo, NY
1509 of 141.9 ppb
(0 to 9.41 ppb)
6Keithley Beach Subd
Warsaw, MO
2401 of 21.89 ppb
(0 to 3.79 ppb)
7Trenton Water Works
Trenton, NJ
205,0001 of 81.61 ppb
(0 to 12.9 ppb)
8Cayuga Lake Mobile Home Park
Pittsford, NY
5001 of 21.55 ppb
(0 to 3.1 ppb)
9Pleasant Valley Mobile Home Park-Moravia
Moravia, NY
601 of 21.35 ppb
(0 to 2.7 ppb)
10Apple Grove Trailer Park
Scottsville, NY
981 of 11.3 ppb
(1.3 ppb)

Testing Summary for Chloroethane

Are tests routinely required for Chloroethane by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Chloroethane (2004-2009):21,418 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of musculoskeletal toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity Klaassen, C, 1996
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003
One or more animal studies show effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingCHLOROETHANE•Extremely flammable
•Extremely flammable
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Harmful to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensETHYL CHLORIDE (CHLOROETHANE)•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsCHLOROETHANE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsCHLOROETHANE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsCHLOROETHANE• S
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsCHLOROETHANE•Prohibited from use in Canadian cosmetics
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsCHLOROETHANE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListETHANE, CHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic and persistent.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsCHLOROETHANE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsETHYL CHLORIDE (CHLOROETHANE)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapETHYL CHLORIDE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 1000 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 87164 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 100 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 4: burns readily;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 3800 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 4.2 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensCHLOROETHANE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsCHLOROETHANE•Pesticide inerts: potentially toxic, testing priority, according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsCHLOROETHANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65CHLOROETHANE (ETHYL CHLORIDE)•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004CHLOROETHANE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterCHLOROETHANE•Musculoskeletal toxicity hazards: suspected
Klaassen, C, 1996CHLOROETHANE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003CHLOROETHANE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensCHLOROETHANE•Cancer hazards: recognized



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.

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