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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Chlordane


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Chlordane is a persistent insecticide/termiticide that is likely carcinogenic to humans and has been banned in the U.S. since 1988. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
14
14
2
Water utilities
39
39
3
People Served
754,941
754,941
314

Health Concerns for Chlordane:


Chlordane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 14 states have reported detecting Chlordane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Chlordane contaminationWater suppliers reporting Chlordane above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
New York4263,8004263,800
Delaware1201,0001201,000
Florida871,184871,184
Hawaii152,326152,326
Rhode Island151,000151,000
Alabama139,051139,051
Kentucky134,650134,650
New Mexico122,000122,000
Nebraska114,700114,700
North Carolina164,690164,690
Maryland11841184
Virginia11561156
Arizona11501150
New Hampshire150150
Total39754,94139754,941

The Most Polluted Communities

39 water utilities reported detecting Chlordane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Chlordane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Old Coach Village
Derry, NH
501 of 15.1 ppb
(5.1 ppb)
2Ashebrook Park
Gastonia, NC
23914 of 160.82 ppb
(0 to 2.4 ppb)
3Pines Rest Home
Louisburg, NC
255 of 70.81 ppb
(0 to 2.2 ppb)
4Oakdale S/D
Charlotte, NC
1176 of 120.59 ppb
(0 to 1.6 ppb)
5F W Baptist Childrens Home
Middlesex, NC
417 of 90.49 ppb
(0 to 0.85 ppb)
6Snow Creek Heights Water Syst
Hickory, NC
13012 of 160.45 ppb
(0 to 1.6 ppb)
7Freezeland Manor Subdivision
VA
1561 of 10.31 ppb
(0.31 ppb)
8Rolling Acres S/D
Raleigh, NC
573 of 100.26 ppb
(0 to 1.1 ppb)
9M/H Park Inc. (Fka - Lee's Mhp)
Lake City, FL
802 of 50.24 ppb
(0 to 0.79 ppb)
10Royal Acres S/D
Raleigh, NC
675 of 100.22 ppb
(0 to 0.71 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Chlordane

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.<0.01 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.03 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.1 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.60 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.60 ppb

Testing Summary for Chlordane

Are tests routinely required for Chlordane by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Chlordane (2004-2009):18,532 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Chlordane

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Chlordane since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations1,781
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1993
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1977
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - strong evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of wildlife and the environment disruption European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption BKH/European Commission, 2000
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Moderate evidence of human neurotoxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of nervous system toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Possible human hematologic toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of hematologic toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1995
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity Merck & Co

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans United Nations Environment Programme/POPs Treaty
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human immune toxicant or allergen - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity US EPA, 9204

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - limited evidence - immune system CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingCHLORDANE•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Harmful
•Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensCHLORDANE•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsCHLORDANE• P
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsCHLORDANE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemCHLORDANES•EPA: known endocrine disruptor
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionCHLORDANE (CIS- AND TRANS-)HH-CAT1;WF-CAT2
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsCHLORDANE, PUR•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsCHLORDANE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapCHLORDANE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: EPA banned it for food crops in 1978 and for termite control in 1988. Chlordane is still licensed for fire ant control in electric transformers. [EXTOXNET] All U.S. registrations cancelled; [EPA Pesticides, p. 56];
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;PE
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensCHLORDANE•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensCHLORDANE•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsCHLORDANE
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsPURCHLORDANEBanned under the Aahrus Protocol for Persistent Organic Pollutants
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)CHLORDANE•Suspected persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Environment Canada, July 2006 chemical inventory review
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsPURCHLORDANE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Great Lakes Binational Strategy, Tier 1 concern (highest), targeted for phase-out
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernPURCHLORDANE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs TreatyPURCHLORDANE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for restrictions under international treaty (Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, or POPs Convention)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsPURCHLORDANE•Very persistent and bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for waste reporting under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65CHLORDANE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004CHLORDANE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004CHLORDANE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
BKH/European Commission, 2000CHLORDANE•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1995CHLORDANE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204CHLORDANE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Merck & CoCHLORDANE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensCHLORDANE•Cancer hazards: recognized
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseCHLORDANE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007CHLORDANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Archives of Toxicology 1983CHLORDANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1988CHLORDANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (rat orl)
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1977CHLORDANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983CHLORDANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (other fish mul)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987CHLORDANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Phage Inhibition Capacity (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1993CHLORDANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995CHLORDANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977CHLORDANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis ( human fbr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsAarhus LRTAP. 1998. Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, United Nations Environment Program.
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
United Nations Environment Programme/POPs TreatyUNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2001. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) — POPs Treaty.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationBKH/European Commission. Towards the establishment of a priority list of substances for further evaluation of their role in endocrine disruption: - preparation of a candidate list of substances as a basis for priority setting. Final report-November 2000. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/01262_en.htm#bkh. Category 1 chemicals from Annex 1: Candidate list of 553 substances. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/bkh_annex_01.pdf, Illinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationMerck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
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RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1977RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 19,369,1977
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