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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Carbon tetrachloride


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Carbon tetrachloride is an industrial solvent and refrigerant released as a pollutant from various chemical plants and the petroleum refining industry. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
33
33
13
Water utilities
274
274
19
People Served
9,379,920
9,379,920
301,983

Health Concerns for Carbon tetrachloride:


Carbon tetrachloride Exposure by State

Water utilities in 33 states have reported detecting Carbon tetrachloride in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Carbon tetrachloride contaminationWater suppliers reporting Carbon tetrachloride above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California314,861,150314,861,150
Florida271,577,941271,577,941
Pennsylvania15982,13315982,133
New York15371,49315371,493
Wisconsin9222,2029222,202
North Carolina20197,14020197,140
New Jersey11192,38311192,383
Washington5181,3555181,355
Rhode Island3117,5003117,500
Texas1495,9771495,977
New Mexico690,678690,678
Ohio565,212565,212
Connecticut258,581258,581
Minnesota1254,7481254,748
Hawaii553,964553,964
Illinois1951,8331951,833
Massachusetts648,126648,126
Arkansas1638,9601638,960
Nebraska1432,0291432,029
Alabama120,550120,550
Maryland215,381215,381
Missouri612,590612,590
Vermont412,443412,443
Idaho17,50017,500
Virginia56,02256,022
Oklahoma64,60564,605
Delaware12,30012,300
Maine41,81941,819
Indiana21,53321,533
Alaska38723872
Montana14701470
Wyoming12541254
New Hampshire21762176
Total2749,379,9202749,379,920

The Most Polluted Communities

274 water utilities reported detecting Carbon tetrachloride in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Carbon tetrachloride level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Garber
Garber, OK
8454 of 57.38 ppb
(0 to 12.6 ppb)
2Trail Ridge Condominiums
MA
1041 of 16.4 ppb
(6.4 ppb)
3Arbor Glen Condominiums
MA
1321 of 15.7 ppb
(5.7 ppb)
4Summit Ridge Mobil Home Park
Walnut Shade, MO
1501 of 32.62 ppb
(0 to 7.87 ppb)
5Angle Inn Motor Court
Howell Twp, NJ
3091 of 52.48 ppb
(0 to 12.4 ppb)
6Balcitis Pump Corp
Rockford, IL
1501 of 52.2 ppb
(0 to 11 ppb)
7LA Association DE Agua DE Los Brazos
Los Ojos, NM
961 of 22.14 ppb
(0 to 4.28 ppb)
8Squaw Valley Mutual Water Comp
Olympic Valley, CA
5001 of 21.67 ppb
(0 to 3.33 ppb)
9Chelsea Family Housing
Chelsea, VT
451 of 31.67 ppb
(0 to 5 ppb)
10Muncy Borough Water Company
Muncy, PA
2,9001 of 81.5 ppb
(0 to 12 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Carbon tetrachloride

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.1 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.23 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.3 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.30 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.30 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4000 ppb

Testing Summary for Carbon tetrachloride

Are tests routinely required for Carbon tetrachloride by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Carbon tetrachloride (2004-2009):33,982 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Violation Summary for Carbon tetrachloride

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Carbon tetrachloride since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations1
Monitoring Violations4,304
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Cancer - moderate evidence - hematologic CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- International Journal of Cancer 1973
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Folia Histochemica et Cytochemica 1975
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1998
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology 2003
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Egyptian Journal of Microbiology 1983
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Known human gastrointestinal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Known human renal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human hematologic toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human cardiovascular toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human sense organ toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human musculoskeletal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low doses EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of renal toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity Klaassen, C, 1996
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- U 1715
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,43,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 9204
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2000

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune toxicity or allergies CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - moderate evidence - immune system CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- U 1715
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingCARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Toxic
•Toxic by inhalation, skin contact, and ingestion
•Harmful to aquatic organisms
•Dangerous for the environment
•Dangerous for the ozone layer
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensCARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Suspected human carcinogen (ACGIH classification A2)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsCARBON TETRACHLORIDE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsCARBON TETRACHLORIDE• S
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsCARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Prohibited from use in Canadian cosmetics
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsCARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListMETHANE, TETRACHLORO-•This chemical was deemed a low human health priority and was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)CARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsCARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsCARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapCARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: EPA banned use as a pesticide except on encased museum specimens; [ATSDR Case Studies # 18];
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Primary;
•Nephrotoxin: Yes;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 10 ppm, Ceiling(OSHA) = 25 ppm (200 ppm for 5-min peak in any 4 hrs.);
•STEL (ACGIH) - Short-term exposure limits (ACGIH): 10 ppm;LC: 1680
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensCARBON TETRACHLORIDE•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsCARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Pesticide inerts of toxicological concern according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensCARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionCARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)TETRACHLOROMETHANE•Persistent toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsTETRACHLOROMETHANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65CARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004CARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996CARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204CARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
Klaassen, C, 1996CARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2000CARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensCARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Cancer hazards: recognized
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseCARBON TETRACHLORIDE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 1983CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Egyptian Journal of Microbiology 1983CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2000CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1984CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Folia Histochemica et Cytochemica 1975CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat scu)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat scu)
RTECS®- International Journal of Cancer 1973CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (rat ipr)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,43,1971CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA repair (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism ( Aspergillis nidulans )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination ( Aspergillis nidulans )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction ( Aspergillis nidulans )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Phage Inhibition Capacity (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1994CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (rat orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1998CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 1983CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (mouse lvr)
RTECS®- Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1984CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1998CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA repair (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1982CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (mammal lym)
RTECS®- Toxicology Letters 1987CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (rat ipr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat ipr)
RTECS®- Toxicology 2003CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)
RTECS®- U 1715CARBON TETRACHLORIDE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, DiPalma, J.A., J. Cunningham, J. Herrera, T. McCaffery, and D. Wolf. Occupational and Industrial Toxin Exposures and the Gastrointestinal Tract. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 86(9): 1107-1117. 1991. (Table 2: Selected Agents with Purported Digestive System Injury)., US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Zimmerman, H.J. and J.H. Lewis. Chemical- and Toxin-Induced Hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 24(4): 1027-1045. 1995. (Table 3: Forms of environmental hepatic injury).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Merck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
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