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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Carbofuran


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Carbofuran is a highly toxic insecticide and soil fumigant that had been used on corn, rice and alfalfa; it poses severe risks to children (via diet), agricultural workers and the environment. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
5
1
-
Water utilities
19
1
-
People Served
781,570
150
-

Health Concerns for Carbofuran:


Carbofuran Exposure by State

Water utilities in 5 states have reported detecting Carbofuran in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Carbofuran contaminationWater suppliers reporting Carbofuran above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Wisconsin11501150
Florida4502,94500
Delaware12243,02500
Kentucky134,65000
New York180000
Total19781,5701150

The Most Polluted Communities

19 water utilities reported detecting Carbofuran in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Carbofuran level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Poynette Mobile Estates
Poynette, WI
1501 of 12.5 ppb
(2.5 ppb)
2Mcwa, Genesee West
Rochester, NY
8001 of 20.45 ppb
(0 to 0.9 ppb)
3Windsong Farms
Newark, DE
4501 of 20.27 ppb
(0 to 0.55 ppb)
4Cedar Landing
Newark, DE
3201 of 20.27 ppb
(0 to 0.55 ppb)
5Delaware Correctional Center
Smyrna, DE
2,0001 of 20.27 ppb
(0 to 0.55 ppb)
6Augustine Creek
Port Penn, DE
4251 of 20.27 ppb
(0 to 0.55 ppb)
7Thomas Cove
Newark, DE
3,4001 of 30.18 ppb
(0 to 0.55 ppb)
8City of Homestead
Homestead, FL
39,0001 of 30.17 ppb
(0 to 0.5 ppb)
9Florida City
Florida City, FL
9,4451 of 30.17 ppb
(0 to 0.5 ppb)
10City of Hallandale Beach
Hallandale Beach, FL
40,0001 of 70.14 ppb
(0 to 1 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Carbofuran

StandardDescriptionLevel
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.1.7 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.40 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.40 ppb

Testing Summary for Carbofuran

Are tests routinely required for Carbofuran by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Carbofuran (2004-2009):18,619 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Carbofuran

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Carbofuran since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations1,712
Reporting Violations0

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human immune system toxicant or allergen National Library of Medicine HazMap

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity Jankovic, J, 1996

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - moderate evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of wildlife and the environment disruption European Commission on Endocrine Disruption

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as very toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2000
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Research 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2007
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Microbios Letters 1979

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingCARBOFURAN•Very toxic
•Very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
FDA Food Additive StatusCARBOFURAN• PEST
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• Tolerances for Residues I40 Code of Federal Regulations 180.254
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionCARBOFURANHH-CAT2;WF-CAT2
National Library of Medicine HazMapCARBOFURAN•Skin Sensitizer - An agent that can induce an allergic reaction in the skin or lungs: Yes;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: EPA banned all granular formulations in 1994. [EXTOXNET];
•Other Poison: Carbamate;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 0.1 mg/m3, inhalable fraction(vapor and aerosol);
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsMETHYLCARBAMATE7-BENZOFURANOL, 2,3-DIHYDRO-2,2-DIMETHYL-•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Jankovic, J, 1996CARBOFURAN•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007CARBOFURAN• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Environmental Research 1982CARBOFURAN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2007CARBOFURAN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Microbios Letters 1979CARBOFURAN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (other micro-organisms )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983CARBOFURAN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985CARBOFURAN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2000CARBOFURAN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika 1984CARBOFURAN• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human lym)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
FDA Food Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationJankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Environmental Research 1982RTECS®- Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967- 29,48,1982
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2007RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 45,928,2007
RTECS®- Microbios Letters 1979RTECS®- Microbios Letters. (Faculty Press, 88 Regent St., Cambridge, UK) V.1- 12,79,1979
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 116,185,1983
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 147,296,1985
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2000RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 465,123,2000
RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika 1984RTECS®- Tsitologiya i Genetika. Cytology and Genetics. For English translation, see CYGEDX. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 18(1),17,1984

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