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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Cadmium (total)


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Cadmium is a metal used in the steel and plastic industries; it is released from corrosion of galvanized pipes, runoff from metal refineries, waste batteries and paints; contamination from fertilizers; and erosion of natural deposits. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
38
38
15
Water utilities
1,247
1,215
49
People Served
14,532,566
13,254,471
160,966

Cadmium (total) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 38 states have reported detecting Cadmium (total) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Cadmium (total) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Cadmium (total) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Florida3184,104,1793154,022,391
California1013,862,058903,212,480
Ohio221,607,895221,607,895
Illinois160936,266160936,266
Wisconsin266845,861255808,602
Indiana129698,174128661,924
Arizona8376,2208376,220
New York33327,36632324,459
Connecticut6220,4606220,460
Delaware9206,8229206,822
New Mexico15117,46914106,669
New Jersey12377,11211104,112
Massachusetts1099,4901099,490
Rhode Island294,809294,809
Minnesota678,515678,515
Montana872,136872,136
Pennsylvania2362,1552362,155
Idaho12246,5721160,785
Maryland944,250944,250
New Hampshire1326,9861326,986
Utah620,923620,923
North Carolina2018,6832018,683
Oklahoma417,935417,935
Washington1316,0621316,062
Missouri712,530612,054
Kentucky18,25018,250
West Virginia57,00157,001
Arkansas36,92836,928
Texas86,01586,015
Hawaii24,57424,574
Oregon54,04543,795
Alaska52,47052,470
Alabama19631963
Nevada16001600
Michigan15981598
Maine11141114
Nebraska151151
South Dakota129129
Total1,24714,532,5661,21513,254,471

The Most Polluted Communities

1,247 water utilities reported detecting Cadmium (total) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Cadmium (total) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Vista Del Toro Ws
Salinas, CA
871 of 112 ppb
(12 ppb)
2Las Cumbres Mutual Water Co
Los Gatos, CA
3371 of 112 ppb
(12 ppb)
3Walnut Grove Mobile Home Park
Mount Vernon, IN
411 of 110 ppb
(10 ppb)
4Calvert Mobile Home Park
Annapolis, MD
801 of 25.5 ppb
(0 to 11 ppb)
5Orchard Crossing Subdivision
Conroe, TX
3601 of 15.5 ppb
(5.5 ppb)
6Aberdeen Pate Water Company, Inc.
Aurora, IN
4,5251 of 14.8 ppb
(4.8 ppb)
7South Dunnellon Water Assoc
Dunnellon, FL
3001 of 14.1 ppb
(4.1 ppb)
8Castleberry Water System
Castleberry, AL
9631 of 14 ppb
(4 ppb)
9Chester College of NE /Douglas
NH
701 of 14 ppb
(4 ppb)
10Sitgreaves Water Co
Show Low, AZ
15010 of 113.87 ppb
(0 to 7.4 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Cadmium (total)

StandardDescriptionLevel
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.04 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.20 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.40 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.40 ppb

Testing Summary for Cadmium (total)

Are tests routinely required for Cadmium (total) by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Cadmium (total) (2004-2009):29,294 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.3 per year

Violation Summary for Cadmium (total)

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Cadmium (total) since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations1
Monitoring Violations1,203
Reporting Violations0