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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Butyl Benzylphthalate


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Butyl benzylphthalate is an industrial solvent and additive used in adhesives, vinyl flooring, sealants, car-care products and some personal care products. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
7
-
-
Water utilities
19
-
-
People Served
900,346
-
-

Health Concerns for Butyl Benzylphthalate:


Butyl Benzylphthalate Exposure by State

Water utilities in 7 states have reported detecting Butyl Benzylphthalate in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Butyl Benzylphthalate contamination
SystemsPopulation
New Jersey5479,052
California6217,403
Delaware3202,345
Arkansas21,173
Washington1250
Vermont181
Texas142
Total19900,346

The Most Polluted Communities

19 water utilities reported detecting Butyl Benzylphthalate in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Butyl Benzylphthalate level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Long Canyon Water Company Corp.
Weldon, CA
1971 of 14.4 ppb
(4.4 ppb)
2Aqua Copia/Horse Country Estates
Snohomish, WA
2501 of 24.2 ppb
(0 to 8.4 ppb)
3Mar Lynn Subdivision
Weatherford, TX
421 of 22.79 ppb
(0 to 5.57 ppb)
4Mil Potrero Mwc
Pine Mountain Club, CA
1,7001 of 42.1 ppb
(0 to 8.4 ppb)
5Golden Hills Csd
Tehachapi, CA
7,4341 of 51.37 ppb
(0 to 6.85 ppb)
6Bear Valley Csd
Tehachapi, CA
5,3001 of 21.15 ppb
(0 to 2.3 ppb)
7Lost Hills Utility District
Lost Hills, CA
2,7721 of 21.03 ppb
(0 to 2.05 ppb)
8Homestead Acres Mhp
Swanton, VT
811 of 20.87 ppb
(0 to 1.73 ppb)
9Boydell Water Association
Mcgehee, AR
1561 of 20.41 ppb
(0 to 0.81 ppb)
10Oxford Waterworks
Oxford, AR
1,0171 of 50.16 ppb
(0 to 0.8 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Butyl Benzylphthalate

StandardDescriptionLevel
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.100 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1500 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.7000 ppb

Testing Summary for Butyl Benzylphthalate

Are tests routinely required for Butyl Benzylphthalate by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Butyl Benzylphthalate (2004-2009):2,553 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human developmental toxicant California EPA Proposition 65
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at low doses Wang JX, Xi YL, Hu K, Liu XB, 2011
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at low doses RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1995
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at low doses RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1995
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity Lyche JL, Gutleb AC, Bergman A, Eriksen GS, Murk AJ, Ropstad E, Saunders M, Skaare JU, 2009
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction, 2002
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction, 2002
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high doses RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2000
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1997
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high doses RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2004
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2000
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology 1995
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2004
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high doses RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1992
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1999
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 9999
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicologist 1984
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicologist 2005
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 1994
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1995
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 1997
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicologist 2001
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5346
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2003
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2002
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- National Technical Information Service
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicologist 2005
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicologist 2004
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 1998
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1992

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human endocrine disruptor - strong evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption BKH/European Commission, 2000
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1982
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 1089
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1997
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 8398
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 1014
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high doses RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1986
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more human case studies show significant immune or allergenic effects Just AC, Whyatt RM, Perzanowski MS, Calafat AM, Perera FP, Goldstein IF, Chen Q, Rundle AG, Miller RL, 2012

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at very low doses RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1988
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man 1982
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1980
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1973
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1974
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2003
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2003
One or more animal studies show blood effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicology and Industrial Health 1987
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Journal of the American College of Toxicology 1992
One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicology and Industrial Health 1987
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Toxicology and Industrial Health 1987
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at high doses RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1980
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at high doses RTECS®- Toxicology and Industrial Health 1987

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingBBP•May cause harm to the unborn child
•Possible risk of impaired fertility
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsBUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE•Safe as used in cosmetics according to industry panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR)
•Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in product
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsBENZYL BUTYL PHTHALATE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance List1,2-BENZENEDICARBOXYLIC ACID, BUTYL PHENYLMETHYL ESTER•This chemical was flagged for further attention by CEPA due to suspected bioaccumulation and aquatic toxicity. The chemical was also flagged as a low human health priority.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemBUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE•EPA: suspected endocrine disruptor
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE•Group C: Possible human carcinogen (EPA classification)
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionBUTYLBENZYLPHTHALATE (BBP)HH-CAT1;WF-CAT3
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensBUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsBUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE•Pesticide inerts: potentially toxic, testing priority, according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
NTP - Risks to Human ReproductionBUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATEREPRO: Men: negligle concern; Women: data are insufficient to reach conclusions. || DEVELOPMENT: Fetuses and children: minimal concern
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsBUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE (BBP)
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernBUTYL PHENYLMETHYL ESTER1,2-BENZENEDICARBOXYLIC ACID•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsBUTYL PHENYLMETHYL ESTER1,2-BENZENEDICARBOXYLIC ACID•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Wang JX, Xi YL, Hu K, Liu XB, 2011BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATEA peer-reviewed study reports BBP causes reproductive effects in animals.
Lyche JL, Gutleb AC, Bergman A, Eriksen GS, Murk AJ, Ropstad E, Saunders M, Skaare JU, 2009BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATEA review article reports BBP is a developmental and reproductive toxicant.
Just AC, Whyatt RM, Perzanowski MS, Calafat AM, Perera FP, Goldstein IF, Chen Q, Rundle AG, Miller RL, 2012BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATEA peer-reviewed study reports BBP is associated with allergies in people.
California EPA Proposition 65BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE (BBP)•Developmental toxin: California Proposition 65
BKH/European Commission, 2000BENZYL BUTYL PHTHALATE•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction, 2002BENZYL BUTYL PHTHALATE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction, 2002BENZYL BUTYL PHTHALATE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1995BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• developmental - Delayed effects (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Urogenital system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1973BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (mouse LD50)
RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1986BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• cancer - blood tumors (rat TD)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1974BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1980BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• metabolic - Weight loss or decreased weight gain (guinea pig LD50)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Somnolence (general depressed activity) (guinea pig LD50)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Withdrawal (guinea pig LD50)
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1988BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (mouse LD50)
RTECS®- IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man 1982BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1992BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• developmental - Musculoskeletal system (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1999BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Journal of the American College of Toxicology 1992BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• liver - Changes in liver weight (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Other developmental abnormalities (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 9999BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Fetal death (mouse TDLo)
• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 8398BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• cancer - blood tumors (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5346BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Fetal death (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Other effects (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Other effects on embryo (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Uterus, cervix, vagina (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 9999BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Litter size (mouse TDLo)
• reproductive - Other effects (mouse TDLo)
• reproductive - Other effects on embryo (mouse TDLo)
• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 1014BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• cancer - gastrointestinal neoplasms (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 1089BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• cancer - gastrointestinal tumor formations - equivocal (rat TDLo)
• cancer - kidney or renal system tumor formations - equivocal (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1982BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• cancer - blood tumors (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1997BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Male fertility index (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Spermatogenesis (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Testes, epididymis, sperm duct (rat TDLo)
• cancer - gastrointestinal tumors (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 1997BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Urogenital system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 1998BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Other effects (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2000BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Central nervous system (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Eye, ear (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)
• developmental - Urogenital system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2000BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Cardiovascular (rat TDLo)
• developmental - Delayed effects (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Endocrine system (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Physical (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Respiratory system (rat TDLo)
• developmental - Viability index (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2002BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Fetal death (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Urogenital system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2003BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Fetal death (mouse TDLo)
• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (mouse TDLo)
• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (mouse TDLo)
• metabolic - Weight loss or decreased weight gain (mouse TDLo)
• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (mouse LD)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2004BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Blood and lymphatic system (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Central nervous system (rat TDLo)
• developmental - Growth statistics (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Hepatobiliary system (rat TDLo)
• developmental - Other developmental abnormalities (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Urogenital system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 1994BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 1984BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Testes, epididymis, sperm duct (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2005BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Biochemical and metabolic (rat TDLo)
• developmental - Delayed effects (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2001BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Urogenital system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2004BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Endocrine system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Industrial Health 1987BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• blood - Hemorrhage (rat TDLo)
• kidney or renal system - Changes in bladder weight (rat TDLo)
• liver - Changes in liver weight (rat TDLo)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Food intake (animal) (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology 1995BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE• reproductive - Fetotoxicity (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Growth statistics (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsCIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
NTP - Risks to Human ReproductionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2006. NTP Center for the Evaluation fo Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR). NTP-CERHR Reports and Monographs.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Open scientific literatureWang JX, Xi YL, Hu K, Liu XB. Effect of butyl benzyl phthalate on life table-demography of two successive generations of cladoceran Moina macrocopa Straus. J Environ Biol. 2011 Jan;32(1):17-22.
Open scientific literatureLyche JL, Gutleb AC, Bergman A, Eriksen GS, Murk AJ, Ropstad E, Saunders M, Skaare JU. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of phthalates. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2009 Apr;12(4):225-49.
Open scientific literatureJust AC, Whyatt RM, Perzanowski MS, Calafat AM, Perera FP, Goldstein IF, Chen Q, Rundle AG, Miller RL. Prenatal exposure to butylbenzyl phthalate and early eczema in an urban cohort. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Oct;120(10):1475-80
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationBKH/European Commission. Towards the establishment of a priority list of substances for further evaluation of their role in endocrine disruption: - preparation of a candidate list of substances as a basis for priority setting. Final report-November 2000. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/01262_en.htm#bkh. Category 1 chemicals from Annex 1: Candidate list of 553 substances. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/bkh_annex_01.pdf, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationNational Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction. National Toxicology Program. 10th Report on Carcinogens (2002). http://ehis.niehs.nih.gov/roc/toc10.htmlERHR Briefs and Expert Panel Reports. http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationNational Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction. National Toxicology Program. 10th Report on Carcinogens (2002). http://ehis.niehs.nih.gov/roc/toc10.htmlERHR Briefs and Expert Panel Reports. http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/, Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-CAND
RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1995RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972- 103,1136,1995
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RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives 1986RTECS®- EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972- 65,271,1986
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987- 44,329,2004
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 44,329,2004
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1974RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936- 39(6),25,1974
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1980RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI 24(3),25,1980
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1988RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI 32(7),52,1988
RTECS®- IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man 1982RTECS®- IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972- 29,193,1982
RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1992RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981- 12,57,1992
RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1999RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981- 19,357,1999
RTECS®- Journal of the American College of Toxicology 1992RTECS®- Journal of the American College of Toxicology. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1-12, 1982-1993. Discontinued. 11,1,1992
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 356,85,1996
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- -1964 356,85,1996
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. #PB90-115346/AS
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 9999RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. #PB91-129999
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 8398RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. PB83-118398
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5346RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. PB90-115346
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 9999RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. PB91-129999
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 1014RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. PB98-131014
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 1089RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. PB98-131089
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1982RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206- NTP-TR-213,1982
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1997RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206- NTP-TR-458,1997
RTECS®- Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 1997RTECS®- Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1981- 26,330,1997
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 1998RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987- 12,127,1998
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2000RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987- 14,417,2000
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2000RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987- 14,513,2000
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2002RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987- 16,71,2002
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2003RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987- 17,575,2003
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2004RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987- 18,1,2004
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 1994RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987- 8,231,1994
RTECS®- Toxicologist 1984RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- -1981 4,136,1984
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2005RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- -1981 44,227,2005
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2001RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- -1981 60,225,2001
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- -1981 72(Suppl 1),272,2003
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2004RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- -1981 78,282,2004
RTECS®- Toxicology and Industrial Health 1987RTECS®- Toxicology and Industrial Health. (Princeton Scientific Pub. Co., POB 2155, Princeton, NJ 08540) V.1- 1985- 3,79,1987
RTECS®- Toxicology 1995RTECS®- Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973- 99,191,1995

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