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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Bromomethane


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Bromomethane is a pesticide used for soil, grain, indoor air and other applications, and a solvent used to extract vegetable and seed oils.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
23
2
-
Water utilities
141
3
-
People Served
1,700,134
3,976
-

Health Concerns for Bromomethane:


Bromomethane Exposure by State

Water utilities in 23 states have reported detecting Bromomethane in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Bromomethane contaminationWater suppliers reporting Bromomethane above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Missouri624,18913,781
New York29146,7012195
California20768,81300
Nebraska1203,00000
Texas22125,53900
Washington385,20500
New Mexico281,12100
Arkansas2056,05300
Wisconsin536,02000
Massachusetts332,30500
New Jersey228,59100
North Carolina727,39700
Indiana625,95900
Alabama323,76000
Florida119,00000
Vermont212,32600
Minnesota22,85300
Alaska267800
Iowa142700
Michigan110100
Ohio16300
Virginia13300
New Hampshire1000
Total1411,700,13433,976

The Most Polluted Communities

141 water utilities reported detecting Bromomethane in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Bromomethane level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Greenacre Manufactured Home Park
Oneonta, NY
451 of 26 ppb
(0 to 12 ppb)
2River Inn Mobile Home Park
Los Molinos, CA
331 of 14.4 ppb
(4.4 ppb)
3Winchester Estates
Duke Center, NY
321 of 13.8 ppb
(3.8 ppb)
4Clay Wsc
Snook, TX
2521 of 13.7 ppb
(3.7 ppb)
5Queen of Apostles
NY
451 of 23.1 ppb
(0 to 6.2 ppb)
6Campbellton Water Works Inc
Campbellton, TX
1471 of 12.77 ppb
(2.77 ppb)
7Fowler Mobile Home Court
Fowler, OH
631 of 22.64 ppb
(0 to 5.27 ppb)
8Louisiana
Louisiana, MO
3,7811 of 62.37 ppb
(0 to 14.2 ppb)
9Snug Harbor Mobile Village
Red Bluff, CA
2251 of 22.3 ppb
(0 to 4.6 ppb)
10Oyster Creek Estates
Freeport, TX
451 of 12 ppb
(2 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Bromomethane

StandardDescriptionLevel
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.50 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.100 ppb

Testing Summary for Bromomethane

Are tests routinely required for Bromomethane by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Bromomethane (2004-2009):21,422 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.6 per year

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human developmental toxicant California EPA Proposition 65
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity Frazier , L, 1998

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 1996
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity Klaassen, C, 1996
One or more animal studies show toxic via inhalation effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - moderate evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,23,1973
Limited evidence of occupational hazards European Union - Classification & Labelling

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Mutagen - limited evidence European Union - Classification & Labelling
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1990
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1992
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- HEW Publication (FDA 1978
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1987
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
Human skin irritant - moderate evidence National Library of Medicine HazMap

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingBROMOMETHANE•Limited evidence of mutagenic effect
•Possible risk of irreversible effects
•Toxic
•Toxic by inhalation and ingestion
•Harmful
•Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
•Dangerous for the environment
•Dangerous for the ozone layer
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsMETHYL BROMIDE• P
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsMETHYL BROMIDE• P
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsMETHYL BROMIDE• P
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsMETHYL BROMIDE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListMETHANE, BROMO-•This chemical was deemed a low human health priority and was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)BROMOMETHANE•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionMETHYLBROMIDE (BROMOMETHANE)HH-CAT2;WF-CAT3
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsBROMOMETHANE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsMETHYL BROMIDE (BROMOMETHANE)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapMETHYL BROMIDE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Dermatotoxin: Skin Burns;
•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: Use was discontinued as a refrigerant and fire extinguisher because of hazards; [ACGIH];
•Toxic Pneumonitis: Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: Other CNS Neurotoxin;
•TIH - Toxic inhalation hazard (North American Emergency Response Guide): Yes;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 2833 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 1 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 1: must be preheated;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 250 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensMETHYL BROMIDE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsMETHYL BROMIDE•Pesticide inerts: potentially toxic, testing priority, according to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsBROMOMETHANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65METHYL BROMIDE, AS A STRUCTURAL FUMIGANT•Developmental toxin: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004METHYL BROMIDE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003METHYL BROMIDE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
Frazier , L, 1998METHYL BROMIDE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 1996METHYL BROMIDE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
Klaassen, C, 1996METHYL BROMIDE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensMETHYL BROMIDE•Developmental toxicity hazards: recognized
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007BROMOMETHANE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985BROMOMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1987BROMOMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- HEW Publication (FDA 1978BROMOMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,23,1973BROMOMETHANE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983BROMOMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983BROMOMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985BROMOMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Klebsiella pneumoniae )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986BROMOMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (rat ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987BROMOMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008BROMOMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1992BROMOMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (mouse ihl)
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1990BROMOMETHANE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationFrazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Lock, E.A., and E. Harpur. Toxicology of Sensory System: A Perspective. Human and Experimental Toxicology. 11(6): 442-448. 1992. (Table 1: Chemicals that induce olfactory lesions in experimental animals by either inhalation and/or non-inhalation routes)., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 7(Suppl 3),48,1985
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1987RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 9,171,1987
RTECS®- HEW Publication (FDA 1978RTECS®- HEW Publication (FDA. United States). (Washington, DC) ?-1979(?). For publisher information, see HPFSDS. FDA-78-1046,1978
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,23,1973RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,23,1973
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 113,272,1983
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 116,185,1983
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 155,41,1985
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 164,269,1986
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 192,131,1987
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 652,122,2008
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1992RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206- NTP-TR-385,1992
RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 1990RTECS®- Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 10,21,1990

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