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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Bromoform


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Bromoform is a disinfection byproduct from the trihalomethane (THM) family, and is formed when chlorine, chloramines or other disinfectants react with organic and inorganic matter in water. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
38
38
15
Water utilities
11,205
11,205
104
People Served
130,283,570
130,283,570
137,811

Health Concerns for Bromoform:


Bromoform Exposure by State

Water utilities in 38 states have reported detecting Bromoform in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Bromoform contaminationWater suppliers reporting Bromoform above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California56536,309,65656536,309,656
Texas3,03618,224,2663,03618,224,266
Florida4929,808,8704929,808,870
Ohio6118,088,6906118,088,690
Illinois5567,422,9855567,422,985
New Jersey3227,376,7213227,376,721
New York9145,558,0179145,558,017
Maryland1054,325,7881054,325,788
Arizona2233,314,0822233,314,082
North Carolina5123,273,6825123,273,682
Wisconsin3642,835,9243642,835,924
Washington3742,395,1473742,395,147
Massachusetts1141,973,2221141,973,222
Virginia2551,958,3532551,958,353
Arkansas3771,796,8313771,796,831
Iowa4021,678,0704021,678,070
Missouri4151,622,7854151,622,785
Indiana741,574,127741,574,127
New Mexico2971,456,0032971,456,003
Michigan1561,406,5391561,406,539
Utah1041,392,0641041,392,064
Hawaii711,209,301711,209,301
Minnesota1661,119,9171661,119,917
Nebraska1371,093,4111371,093,411
Delaware70683,43370683,433
Alabama39581,97139581,971
Idaho18480,49318480,493
Montana84320,00384320,003
Nevada18317,08718317,087
Rhode Island11229,34511229,345
Vermont62108,52162108,521
New Hampshire11496,59211496,592
North Dakota4880,0924880,092
Alaska5066,9255066,925
Maine4341,8324341,832
South Carolina433,300433,300
Colorado129,500129,500
Wyoming125125
Total11,205130,283,57011,205130,283,570

The Most Polluted Communities

11,205 water utilities reported detecting Bromoform in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Bromoform level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Ocean Towers / Island Village
Jensen Beach, FL
7681 of 1129 ppb
(129 ppb)
2Gary Wsc
Gary City (corporate Name For, TX
81914 of 14106.19 ppb
(12.9 to 210.1 ppb)
3City of Queen City
Queen City, TX
1,81815 of 16100.76 ppb
(0 to 185.3 ppb)
4Aransas County Mud 1
Rockport, TX
23411 of 1299.15 ppb
(0 to 177.4 ppb)
5Coke County Wsc
Robert Lee, TX
55013 of 1498.41 ppb
(0 to 174.4 ppb)
6Rowena Wsc
Rowena, TX
59412 of 1396.99 ppb
(0 to 196 ppb)
7City of Miles
Miles, TX
79113 of 1496.3 ppb
(0 to 213 ppb)
8Brazos River Authority Possum Kingdom Dam
Graford, TX
453 of 394.3 ppb
(82.9 to 100 ppb)
9City of Paint Rock
Paint Rock, TX
32011 of 1191.1 ppb
(7.3 to 174.2 ppb)
10Tampa Bay Seawater Desalination Facility
Gibsonton, FL
254 of 488.75 ppb
(21 to 170 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Bromoform

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4.3 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.8 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.80 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.200 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.800 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5000 ppb

Testing Summary for Bromoform

Are tests routinely required for Bromoform by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Bromoform (2004-2009):32,022 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.9 per year

Violation Summary for Bromoform

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Bromoform since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations156
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Research 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1990
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1993
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1989
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1983
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1989
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1993
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,28,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingBROMOFORM; TRIBROMOMETHANE•Toxic
•Toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensBROMOFORM•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsTRIBROMOMETHANE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListMETHANE, TRIBROMO-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic and persistent.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)BROMOFORM•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsBROMOFORM•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapBROMOFORM•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 0.5 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 8564 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 0.5 ppm;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 850 ppm;
•Lacrimator - A substance that irritates the eyes and induces the flow of tears: Yes;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 15 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 0.19 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensBROMOFORM•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsTRIBROMOMETHANE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65BROMOFORM•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004TRIBROMOMETHANE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterTRIBROMOMETHANE•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensTRIBROMOMETHANE•Cancer hazards: recognized
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007BROMOFORM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001BROMOFORM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004BROMOFORM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1983BROMOFORM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985BROMOFORM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985BROMOFORM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Environmental Research 1983BROMOFORM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,28,1971BROMOFORM• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1990BROMOFORM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1993BROMOFORM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (non-mammalian species mul)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1993BROMOFORM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (rat leu)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003BROMOFORM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lng)
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1989BROMOFORM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse itr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (mouse itr)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994BROMOFORM• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994BROMOFORM• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994BROMOFORM• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993BROMOFORM• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2001RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 37,231,2001
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2004RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 44,329,2004
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1983RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 5(Suppl 1),3,1983
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 7,1,1985
RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis 1985RTECS®- Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG. 7,677,1985
RTECS®- Environmental Research 1983RTECS®- Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967- 32,72,1983
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,28,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,28,1971
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1990RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 242,111,1990
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1993RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 292,83,1993
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1993RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 300,241,1993
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 538,41,2003
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 1989RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206- NTP-TR-350,1989
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993

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