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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Beryllium (total)


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Beryllium is a metal associated with metal refineries and combustion of fossil fuels, especially coal burning; it is released into the environment from electrical, aerospace and defense industries. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
29
19
9
Water utilities
682
88
17
People Served
12,333,058
2,176,702
47,489

Health Concerns for Beryllium (total):


Beryllium (total) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 29 states have reported detecting Beryllium (total) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Beryllium (total) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Beryllium (total) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California574,621,04581,735,163
Florida1823,933,0377247,386
New York21637,2221050,845
Massachusetts545,756343,656
New Hampshire1931,3001628,067
Indiana77659,179527,318
Illinois30278,4621023,583
North Carolina99,71489,549
Ohio1437,73612,990
Utah310,01012,450
Wisconsin181266,30042,075
Maryland1440,68351,341
Delaware22252,28731,308
Alabama22,1511450
Rhode Island10136,6722270
New Jersey4299,092180
Alaska83,390174
Oklahoma213,802160
Washington220,687137
Connecticut2395,02400
Nevada1315,20000
Pennsylvania3253,44500
Idaho246,60000
Montana212,55700
Kentucky18,02900
West Virginia22,45400
Minnesota490000
New Mexico120000
Arizona212400
Total68212,333,058882,176,702

The Most Polluted Communities

682 water utilities reported detecting Beryllium (total) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Beryllium (total) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Rolling Ridge
Bartlett, NH
8318 of 199.1 ppb
(0 to 12 ppb)
2Sierra City Water Works, Inc.
Sierra City, CA
601 of 17.5 ppb
(7.5 ppb)
3Saco Ridge Water Inc
Bartlett, NH
8315 of 155.74 ppb
(2.3 to 9.6 ppb)
4Stevens Co Pud - Chatteroy Springs North
Chattaroy, WA
373 of 35.67 ppb
(5 to 6 ppb)
5Wagarville Water System
Wagarville, AL
4501 of 15 ppb
(5 ppb)
6Southwick Water Dept
Southwick, MA
7,8561 of 25 ppb
(0 to 10 ppb)
7Camp Georgetown
Georgetown, NY
3601 of 15 ppb
(5 ppb)
8Black Horse Manor
Ham Twp, NJ
801 of 14.3 ppb
(4.3 ppb)
9East Palatka Water System
East Palatka, FL
1101 of 14 ppb
(4 ppb)
10Bear Peak AT Attitash
NH
80021 of 213.8 ppb
(2.9 to 5 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Beryllium (total)

StandardDescriptionLevel
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.1 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.4 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.70 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.30000 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.30000 ppb

Testing Summary for Beryllium (total)

Are tests routinely required for Beryllium (total) by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Beryllium (total) (2004-2009):28,831 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Beryllium (total)

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Beryllium (total) since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations34
Monitoring Violations1,246
Reporting Violations0

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human carcinogen Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Known human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Known human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Possible human carcinogen European Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at low doses RTECS®- Environmental Research 1980
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at moderate doses RTECS®- Lancet 1950
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Pharmacologist 1970
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental Research 1980

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Known human respiratory toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Known human renal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Known human skin toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Possible human respiratory toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human sense organ toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human cardiovascular toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more animal studies show liver effects at very low doses RTECS®- Laboratory Investigation 1966
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at low doses RTECS®- "Spravochnik po Toksikologii i Gigienicheskim Normativam (PDK) Potentsial'no Opasnykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv" Kushneva, V 1999
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of cardiovascular toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity European Economic Community
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies European Economic Community, 2003
One or more animal studies show gastrointestinal or allergenic effects at very low doses CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of immune toxicity or allergies CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses National Library of Medicine HazMap
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses European Economic Community, 2003
Single case study detailing occupational hazards Frazier , L, 1998

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of nervous system toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingBERYLLIUM•May cause cancer
•May cause cancer by inhalation
•Very toxic
•Very toxic by inhalation
•Toxic
•Toxic if swallowed
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
•May cause sensitization by skin contact
European Union - Classification & LabellingBERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS WITH THE EXCEPTION OF ALUMINIUM BERYLLIUM SILICATES, AND WITH THOSE SPECIFIED ELSEWHERE IN THIS ANNEX•May cause cancer
•May cause cancer by inhalation
•Very toxic
•Very toxic by inhalation
•Toxic
•Toxic if swallowed
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
•May cause sensitization by skin contact
•Dangerous for the environment
•Toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensBERYLLIUM AND BERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS•Confirmed human carcinogen (ACGIH classification A1)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsBERYLLIUM• o
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsBERYLLIUM•Prohibited from use in Canadian cosmetics
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsBERYLLIUM•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListBERYLLIUM•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic and persistent.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS•Group B1: Probable human carcinogen - limited evidence for humans (EPA classification)
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS•Known human carcinogen (EPA classification)
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS•Carcinogenicity cannot be determined (EPA classification)
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsBERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapBERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS•Restricted - Regulations that have banned or restricted the use of the agent: Use in fluorescent and neon lamp industries was banned in the 1960's.;
•Toxic Pneumonitis: Yes;
•Lung Cancer - Cancer of the lung caused by occupational exposures-all of these agents are in the IARC Group 1 (known human carcinogens): Yes;
•Hepatotoxin: Hepatotoxin, Secondary;
•Fibrogenic - Inducing tissue injury and fibrosis (scarring): Yes;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 0.002 mg/m3, as Be, Ceiling(OSHA) = 0.005 mg/m3, as Be(0.025 mg/m3,as Be,for 30 min.peak per 8-hr shift);ST: 0.01 mg/m3
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensBERYLLIUM AND BERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS•IARC Group 1: carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensBERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS•IARC Group 1: carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensBERYLLIUM•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)DISSOLVEDBERYLLIUM•Persistent toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsDISSOLVEDBERYLLIUM•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsBERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004BERYLLIUM•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
European Economic CommunityBERYLLIUM•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
European Economic Community, 2003BERYLLIUM•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996BERYLLIUM•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
Frazier , L, 1998BERYLLIUM•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Klaassen, C, 1996BERYLLIUM•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
Landrigan, P, 1984BERYLLIUM•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
European Economic CommunityBERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
European Economic Community, 2003BERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003BERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006BERYLLIUM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007BERYLLIUM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Spravochnik po Toksikologii i Gigienicheskim Normativam (PDK) Potentsial'no Opasnykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv" Kushneva, V 1999BERYLLIUM• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
RTECS®- Environmental Research 1980BERYLLIUM• cancer - respiratory neoplasms (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Laboratory Investigation 1966BERYLLIUM• liver - Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal (rat LD50)
RTECS®- Lancet 1950BERYLLIUM• cancer - musculoskeletal tumor formations - equivocal (rabbit TDLo)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981BERYLLIUM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1981BERYLLIUM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Pharmacologist 1970BERYLLIUM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (non-mammalian species ivn)
RTECS®- Pharmacologist 1970BERYLLIUM• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (non-mammalian species ivn)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, Dossing, M. and P. Skinhoj. Occupational Liver Injury. Present State of Knowledge and Future Perspectives. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 56:1-21. 1985. (Table 2: Chemically induced liver injury: morphologic features and examples of confirmed and suspected causative agents)., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationEuropean Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationEuropean Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Lu, F.C. Basic Toxicology. 2nd Edition. 1991., Nemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals)., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationFrazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationLandrigan, P.J., Goyer, R.A. Clarkson, T.W., Sandler, D.P., Smith, J.H., Thun, M.J., and R. Wedeen. The Work-Relatedness of Renal Disease. Archives of Environmental Health. 39(3): 225-230. 1984. (Table 2: Estimated Numbers of Workers in the United States with Potential Occupational Exposures to Known or Suspect Nephrotoxins).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationEuropean Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationEuropean Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
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