The Power of Information

National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Benzo[k]fluoranthene


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Benzo[k]fluoranthene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) released from combustion of fossil fuels and waste incinerators; it may leach into tap water from water distribution system tanks and pipes lined with coal tar or asphalt.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
6
6
-
Water utilities
8
8
-
People Served
549,856
549,856
-

Health Concerns for Benzo[k]fluoranthene:


Benzo[k]fluoranthene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 6 states have reported detecting Benzo[k]fluoranthene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Benzo[k]fluoranthene contaminationWater suppliers reporting Benzo[k]fluoranthene above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
New Jersey1217,2301217,230
Delaware1201,0001201,000
Rhode Island294,809294,809
Texas219,413219,413
Illinois114,632114,632
California12,77212,772
Total8549,8568549,856

The Most Polluted Communities

8 water utilities reported detecting Benzo[k]fluoranthene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Benzo[k]fluoranthene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1NJ American Water Company
Shorthills, NJ
217,2301 of 10.2 ppb
(0.2 ppb)
2Lost Hills Utility District
Lost Hills, CA
2,7721 of 20.11 ppb
(0 to 0.22 ppb)
3West Houston Mobile Home Comm
Houston, TX
5251 of 10.06 ppb
(0.06 ppb)
4City of Wichita Falls
Wichita Falls, TX
18,8881 of 50.03 ppb
(0 to 0.15 ppb)
5Lindenhurst
Lindenhurst, IL
14,6321 of 80.01 ppb
(0 to 0.1 ppb)
6Artesian Water Company
Newark, DE
201,0001 of 73< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.63 ppb)
7Bristol County Water Authority
Warren, RI
51,0001 of 11< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.09 ppb)
8City of Newport
Newport, RI
43,8093 of 23< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.09 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Benzo[k]fluoranthene

StandardDescriptionLevel
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.<0.01 ppb

Testing Summary for Benzo[k]fluoranthene

Are tests routinely required for Benzo[k]fluoranthene by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Benzo[k]fluoranthene (2004-2009):2,164 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology 2004
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1980
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1999

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingBENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE•May cause cancer
•May cause cancer
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsBENZO(K)FLUORANTHENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsBENZO(K)FLUORANTHENE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
European Union - Water Framework Directive(BENZO(K)FLUOROANTHENE),•Priority substance in EU water policy
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensBENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsBENZO[K]FLUORANTHENEObligates Parties to reduce emissions under Aahrus Protocol for Persistent Organic Pollutants
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)BENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsBENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Great Lakes Binational Strategy, Tier 2 concern (moderate), targeting for monitoring/testing
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernBENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsBENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - targeted for waste reporting under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)BENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, priority chemical for voluntary waste/emission reductions
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)BENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE•Group B2: Probable human carcinogen - sufficient data in animals (EPA classification)
California EPA Proposition 65BENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensBENZO(K)FLUORANTHENE•Cancer hazards: recognized
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1980BENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996BENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1999BENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (other fish orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002BENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004BENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human fbr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004BENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Toxicology 2004BENZO[K]FLUORANTHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test ( human lvr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic PollutantsAarhus LRTAP. 1998. Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, United Nations Environment Program.
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1980RTECS®- Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 40,4528,1980
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1996RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 371,123,1996
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1999RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 427,135,1999
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 515,85,2002
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 547,109,2004
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 557,99,2004
RTECS®- Toxicology 2004RTECS®- Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 198,315,2004

"RTECS®" is a United States trademark owned and licensed under authority of the U.S. Government, by and through MDL Information Systems, Inc.