The Power of Information

National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Benzoic acid


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Benzoic acid a chemical that occurs naturally and is also manufactured on an industrial scale; it is used as an intermediate for production of insect repellants and plastics and as a food preservative.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
1
-
-
Water utilities
2
-
-
People Served
42,085
-
-

Health Concerns for Benzoic acid:


Benzoic acid Exposure by State

Water utilities in 1 states have reported detecting Benzoic acid in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Benzoic acid contamination
SystemsPopulation
Texas242,085
Total242,085

The Most Polluted Communities

2 water utilities reported detecting Benzoic acid in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Benzoic acid level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Upper Trinity Regional Water District
Lewisville, TX
261 of 151 ppb
(51 ppb)
2City of Grapevine
Grapevine, TX
42,0591 of 16 ppb
(6 ppb)

Testing Summary for Benzoic acid

Are tests routinely required for Benzoic acid by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Benzoic acid (2004-2008):5 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2008):1.9 per year

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc 1973
One or more animal studies show respiratory effects at low doses RTECS®- Journal of Allergy 1945
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at low doses RTECS®- "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols 1959
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity Harvell, J, Bason M, Maibach H, 1994
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- International Polymer Science and Technology 1976
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico 1973
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Acta Physiologica Polonica 1961
One or more animal studies show respiratory effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Iyakuhin Kenkyu 1984
One or more animal studies show gastrointestinal effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Iyakuhin Kenkyu 1984
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales 1966
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols 1959
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols 1959
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Muenchener Medicinische Wochenschrift 1930
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at moderate doses RTECS®- Iyakuhin Kenkyu 1984

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1982
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Zentralblatt fuer Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Abteilung II 1959
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Zentralblatt fuer Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Abteilung II 1959
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2008
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Not likely to be carcinogenic in humans EPA Water Disinfection By-Products Carcinogenicity

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at low doses RTECS®- Journal of Allergy 1945
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at low doses RTECS®- "Cutaneous Toxicity, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference, 1976," Drill, V 1977
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc 1973
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Contact Dermatitis 1995
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at high doses RTECS®- Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1984

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Everything Added to Food

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
FDA Food Additive StatusBENZOIC ACID• Food additive: chemical preservative
• GRAS (generally recognized as safe) - use in food presumed safe based either on a history of use before 1958 or on published scientific evidence; need not be approved by the FDA prior to use in food; most have not limit for use but must conform to good manufacturing practices; some GRAS substances have quantitative limit for use in foods; by definition under Sec 201(s) of FD&C Act, not food additives
• 0.1%
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsBENZOIC ACID• o
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsBENZOIC ACID•Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications
•Determined safe for use in cosmetics up to a specified concentration limit
•Insufficient data to determine safety of products where ingredients are likely to be inhaled

EPA Water Disinfection By-Products CarcinogenicityBENZOIC ACID•Low concern for potential carcinogenicity
FDA Everything Added to FoodBENZOIC ACID• Fully up-to-date toxicology information has been sought.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListBENZOIC ACID•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for as a low human health priority.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)BENZOIC ACID•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListBENZOIC ACID•The chemical has been reported as used in fragrance compounds by IFRA affiliated member companies in 2008.
Japan's Standards for CosmeticsBENZOIC ACID•Japan - restricted for use in cosmetics (concentration limit)
Harvell, J, Bason M, Maibach H, 1994BENZOIC ACID•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- "Cutaneous Toxicity, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference, 1976," Drill, V 1977BENZOIC ACID• skin - Primary skin irritant ( human )
RTECS®- "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols 1959BENZOIC ACID• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (frog LDLo)
RTECS®- Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1984BENZOIC ACID• skin - Primary skin irritant ( human )
RTECS®- Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1984BENZOIC ACID• skin - Primary skin irritant ( human )
RTECS®- Acta Physiologica Polonica 1961BENZOIC ACID• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
RTECS®- BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc 1973BENZOIC ACID• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico 1973BENZOIC ACID• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
RTECS®- Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales 1966BENZOIC ACID• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (mouse LD50)
RTECS®- Contact Dermatitis 1995BENZOIC ACID• skin - Primary skin irritant ( human )
RTECS®- Contact Dermatitis 1995BENZOIC ACID• skin - Primary skin irritant ( human )
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2008BENZOIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- International Polymer Science and Technology 1976BENZOIC ACID• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
RTECS®- Iyakuhin Kenkyu 1984BENZOIC ACID• gastrointestinal - Other changes (mouse LD50)
• respiratory - Respiratory depression (mouse LD50)
• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Somnolence (general depressed activity) (mouse LD50)
RTECS®- Journal of Allergy 1945BENZOIC ACID• skin - Dermatitis, allergic ( human TDLo)
• respiratory - Dyspnea ( human TDLo)
RTECS®- Muenchener Medicinische Wochenschrift 1930BENZOIC ACID• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (guinea pig LDLo)
RTECS®- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1982BENZOIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human lym)
RTECS®- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1982BENZOIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition ( human lym)
RTECS®- Zentralblatt fuer Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Abteilung II 1959BENZOIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Zentralblatt fuer Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Abteilung II 1959BENZOIC ACID• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Escherichia coli )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
FDA Food Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Cosmetic Ingredient Review AssessmentsCIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
EPA Water Disinfection By-Products CarcinogenicityEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2006. EPA Water Disinfection By-Products with Carcinogenicity Estimates. Last updated: 10 April 2006.
FDA Everything Added to FoodFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListIFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
Japan's Standards for CosmeticsJapan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 2006. Standards for Cosmetics. Evaluation and Licensing Division. Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationHarvell, J, Bason M, Maibach H. 1994. Contact Urticaria and its Mechanisms. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. (Table 2: Substances identified as capable of causing contact urticaria)., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
RTECS®- "Cutaneous Toxicity, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference, 1976," Drill, V 1977RTECS®- "Cutaneous Toxicity, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference, 1976," Drill, V.A., and P. Lazar, eds., New York, Academic Press, Inc. 1977 -,127,1977
RTECS®- "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols 1959RTECS®- "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59 5,23,1959
RTECS®- Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1984RTECS®- Acta Dermato-Venereologica. (Almqvist & Wiksell, POB 45150, S-10430 Stockholm, Sweden) V.1- 1920- 26,734,1984
RTECS®- Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1984RTECS®- Acta Dermato-Venereologica. (Almqvist & Wiksell, POB 45150, S-10430 Stockholm, Sweden) V.1- -1920 26,734,1984
RTECS®- Acta Physiologica Polonica 1961RTECS®- Acta Physiologica Polonica. (Karger-Libri, POB CH-4009, Warszawa, Switzerland) V.1-41, 1950-90. 12,173,1961
RTECS®- BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc 1973RTECS®- BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. (1810 Frontage Rd., Northbrook, IL 60062) 28-4/1973
RTECS®- Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico 1973RTECS®- Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico. (Societa Editoriale Farmaceutica, Via Ausonio 12, 20123 Milan, Italy) V.33- 1894- 112,53,1973
RTECS®- Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales 1966RTECS®- Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.1- 1849- 160,1097,1966
RTECS®- Contact Dermatitis 1995RTECS®- Contact Dermatitis. Environmental and Occupational Dermatitis. (Munksgaard International Pub., c/o Publications Expediting Inc., 200 Meacham Ave., Elmont, NY 11003) V.1- 1975- 33,177,1995
RTECS®- Contact Dermatitis 1995RTECS®- Contact Dermatitis. Environmental and Occupational Dermatitis. (Munksgaard International Pub., c/o Publications Expediting Inc., 200 Meacham Ave., Elmont, NY 11003) V.1- 33,177,1995
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 2008RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 46,1034,2008
RTECS®- International Polymer Science and Technology 1976RTECS®- International Polymer Science and Technology. (Rapra Technology Ltd., Shawbury, Shrewsbury, Shropshire SY4 4NR, UK) 3,93,1976
RTECS®- Iyakuhin Kenkyu 1984RTECS®- Iyakuhin Kenkyu. Study of Medical Supplies. (Nippon Koteisho Kyokai, 12-15, 2-chome, Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan) V.1- 1970- 15,359,1984
RTECS®- Journal of Allergy 1945RTECS®- Journal of Allergy. (St. Louis, MO) V.1-47, 1929-71. For publisher information, see JACIBY. 16,195,1945
RTECS®- Muenchener Medicinische Wochenschrift 1930RTECS®- Muenchener Medicinische Wochenschrift. (Munich, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.33-115, 1886-1973. 77,13,1930
RTECS®- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1982RTECS®- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (National Academy of Sciences, Printing & Pub. Office, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418) V.1- 1915- 79,1171,1982
RTECS®- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1982RTECS®- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (National Academy of Sciences, Printing & Pub. Office, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418) V.1- 79,1171,1982
RTECS®- Zentralblatt fuer Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Abteilung II 1959RTECS®- Zentralblatt fuer Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Abteilung II. Naturwissenschaftliche: Allgemeine, Landwirtschaftliche und Technische Mikrobiologie. (Jena, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.107-132, 1952-77. 112,226,1959
RTECS®- Zentralblatt fuer Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Abteilung II 1959RTECS®- Zentralblatt fuer Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Abteilung II. Naturwissenschaftliche: Allgemeine, Landwirtschaftliche und Technische Mikrobiologie. (Jena, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.107-132, 1952-77. 112,226,1959

"RTECS®" is a United States trademark owned and licensed under authority of the U.S. Government, by and through MDL Information Systems, Inc.