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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Barium (total)


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Barium is a mineral that enters drinking water through drilling and mining waste runoff, discharges from chemical industries and erosion of natural deposits. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
44
30
7
Water utilities
21,744
258
36
People Served
157,757,147
876,735
150,007

Health Concerns for Barium (total):


Barium (total) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 44 states have reported detecting Barium (total) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Barium (total) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Barium (total) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Illinois1,2079,313,81250338,611
Virginia181,965,6332155,224
Florida1,44116,770,0407105,825
Missouri1,1902,721,0781567,725
Arizona5274,485,243343,439
California1,13337,654,128726,318
New York1,5575,918,7825124,930
Wisconsin1,3853,646,8701221,765
Massachusetts2025,318,686116,000
Ohio8216,621,0591713,871
Indiana6364,187,1101312,894
Pennsylvania8094,482,9982611,483
Nebraska5191,354,837210,192
Iowa467842,353108,035
Texas3,32011,635,29075,250
Oklahoma5522,793,03764,721
Kentucky1913,424,97822,402
Minnesota4341,627,40922,055
Alabama1011,531,71111,350
Maryland2834,721,29131,023
New Jersey3956,547,7835888
Connecticut3972,422,8865794
Maine337642,6161440
Wyoming67171,4632430
Delaware138827,9892354
North Carolina49520,3812335
Arkansas4232,125,5481275
Michigan203715,987146
Idaho239728,890135
Montana268291,950125
Nevada952,302,85000
Utah2422,184,49900
Washington2301,433,13600
Oregon1811,267,20900
New Hampshire796804,20900
Hawaii9780,63400
Rhode Island43775,82500
New Mexico305765,64000
South Dakota132501,58100
Alaska162344,15300
West Virginia4195,56800
North Dakota101186,79300
Vermont134173,71200
Colorado129,50000
Total21,744157,757,147258876,735

The Most Polluted Communities

21,744 water utilities reported detecting Barium (total) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Barium (total) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Indiana Muni Svc Auth-Jksnvlle
Indiana, PA
1,8352 of 23360 ppb
(3120 to 3600 ppb)
2Valley View Mobile Court
East Aurora, NY
422 of 22860 ppb
(2720 to 3000 ppb)
3Marshall Water Works
Marshall, IN
37812 of 122522.41 ppb
(1363.14 to 3247.5 ppb)
4American Tempo Village Park
Muncy, PA
8019 of 192331.05 ppb
(40 to 3940 ppb)
5Volo
Volo, IL
251 of 12300 ppb
(2300 ppb)
6Seaton
Seaton, IL
22521 of 212200.28 ppb
(1498.8 to 2660 ppb)
7Laceyville Water Co
Laceyville, PA
4761 of 12120 ppb
(2120 ppb)
8Country Meadows Comm. Mhp
Frankfort, NY
365 of 52016 ppb
(730 to 2950 ppb)
9Santa FE Hills Subdivision
Alachua, FL
2001 of 12000 ppb
(2000 ppb)
10Spanish Lakes Country Club Village
Fort Pierce, FL
2,3311 of 12000 ppb
(2000 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Barium (total)

StandardDescriptionLevel
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.700 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.700 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.1000 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2000 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2000 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.2000 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.7000 ppb

Testing Summary for Barium (total)

Are tests routinely required for Barium (total) by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Barium (total) (2004-2009):30,088 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.3 per year

Violation Summary for Barium (total)

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Barium (total) since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations36
Monitoring Violations1,191
Reporting Violations0

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Single case study detailing occupational hazards US EPA, 9204
Single case study detailing occupational hazards Frazier , L, 1998

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity Nemery, B, 1990
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity California Air Resources Board
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show cardiovascular effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1989
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show biochemical changes at high doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1989

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsBARIUM• o
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsBARIUM•Use is restricted in Canadian cosmetics
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListBARIUM•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS•Carcinogenicity cannot be determined (EPA classification)
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS•Not likely to be carcinogenic in humans (EPA classification)
National Library of Medicine HazMapBARIUM, SOLUBLE COMPOUNDS•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 0.5 mg/m3, as Ba;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 0.5 mg/m3, as Ba;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 50 mg/m3;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 0.5 mg/m3, as Ba, inhalable fraction(soluble compds);
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsDISSOLVEDBARIUM•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsBARIUM COMPOUNDS -- TRI•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
US EPA, 9204BARIUM•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
Frazier , L, 1998BARIUM•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Nemery, B, 1990BARIUM•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
California Air Resources BoardBARIUM COMPOUNDS•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005BARIUM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006BARIUM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007BARIUM• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1989BARIUM• cardiovascular - BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section (rat TDLo)
• biochemical - Xanthine, purine, or nucleotides, including urate (rat TDLo)
• biochemical - Cytochrome oxidases (including oxidative phosphorylation) (rat TDLo)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationFrazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationNemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia Air Resources Board. Toxic Air Contaminant Fact Sheets. http://www.arb.ca.gov/toxics/tac/tac.htm.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1989RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76- 28,373,1989

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