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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Atrazine


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Atrazine is an endocrine-disrupting herbicide used on corn, sugarcane and sorghum; it is associated with adverse reproductive effects and toxicity to the immune system. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
33
28
6
Water utilities
661
490
37
People Served
27,219,355
17,393,975
861,538

Health Concerns for Atrazine:


Atrazine Exposure by State

Water utilities in 33 states have reported detecting Atrazine in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Atrazine contaminationWater suppliers reporting Atrazine above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Texas1045,833,896895,254,554
Ohio804,459,090712,905,651
Pennsylvania402,398,926252,048,950
Indiana281,573,002281,573,002
Illinois591,043,168591,043,168
Nebraska84961,34247882,180
Missouri46616,56941599,751
Iowa37729,72324412,963
Minnesota6385,0574384,471
Florida6397,5612355,146
Kentucky24348,76923314,119
North Carolina19360,09814274,828
Idaho4236,5933232,477
Maryland183,760,94110220,533
Delaware6247,4073201,177
Hawaii16270,2258177,937
California3175,4863175,486
Michigan1124,9431124,943
Arkansas180,258180,258
Massachusetts497,150252,000
Wisconsin4077,6621927,438
Arizona3731,361116,308
Alabama217,958113,338
Virginia41,244,08929,265
Oklahoma417,64937,745
New York8505,69635,953
New Hampshire22522252
Montana182182
New Jersey3449,79300
Rhode Island258,30900
Connecticut111,59000
Vermont13,50000
Washington41,21000
Total66127,219,35549017,393,975

The Most Polluted Communities

661 water utilities reported detecting Atrazine in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Atrazine level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Keenhold Assoc Water Sys
PA
401 of 12 ppb
(2 ppb)
2Village of Blanchester
Blanchester, OH
4,50034 of 501.74 ppb
(0 to 8.3 ppb)
3City of Pflugerville
Pflugerville, TX
14,4601 of 11.7 ppb
(1.7 ppb)
4City of Napoleon
Napoleon, OH
9,31829 of 501.46 ppb
(0 to 7.1 ppb)
5Crosby Mud
Crosby, TX
3,1626 of 71.36 ppb
(0 to 7.3 ppb)
6City of Cameron
Cameron, TX
5,63511 of 121.23 ppb
(0 to 7.01 ppb)
7City of Cooper
Cooper, TX
1,2008 of 111.16 ppb
(0 to 3.65 ppb)
8Village of Mcclure
Mcclure, OH
85023 of 441.14 ppb
(0 to 7.9 ppb)
9Evansville
Evansville, IL
74013 of 311.06 ppb
(0 to 8 ppb)
10Maryville
Maryville, MO
9,87218 of 221.03 ppb
(0 to 3.57 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Atrazine

StandardDescriptionLevel
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.0.15 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.700 ppb

Testing Summary for Atrazine

Are tests routinely required for Atrazine by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Atrazine (2004-2009):23,285 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Atrazine

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Atrazine since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations19
Monitoring Violations1,948
Reporting Violations0

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - strong evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption BKH/European Commission, 2000
Limited evidence of wildlife and the environment disruption European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies European Economic Community
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune toxicity or allergies CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human reproductive toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human developmental toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of musculoskeletal toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of renal toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of cardiovascular toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible carcinogen Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
Cancer - limited evidence US EPA, 1788
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2006
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2001
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Commission of the European Communities, Report EUR 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1980
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1977
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as a high human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- Ciba-Geigy Toxicology Data/Indexes 1977
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- Vrachebnoe Delo 1977
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity European Economic Community
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Human skin irritant - moderate evidence National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Ciba-Geigy Toxicology Data/Indexes 1977
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Vrachebnoe Delo 1977

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingATRAZINE•Harmful
•Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed
•May cause sensitization by skin contact
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Environment Canada Domestic Substance List1,3,5-TRIAZINE-2,4-DIAMINE, 6-CHLORO-N-ETHYL-N'-(1-METHYLETHYL)-•This chemical was deemed a high human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical is suspected to be carcinogenic, persistent, and toxic to aquatic organisms.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemATRAZINE•EPA: known endocrine disruptor
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionATRAZINEHH-CAT1;WF-CAT2
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveATRAZINE•Priority substance in EU water policy
National Library of Medicine HazMapATRAZINE•Dermatotoxin: Skin Burns;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 5 mg/m3;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 2 mg/m3, inhalable fraction;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensATRAZINE •IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsATRAZINENeuroendocrine-pituitary (depression of LH surge); testosterone metabolism.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern6-CHLORO-N-ETHYL-N'-(1-METHYLETHYL)-1,3,5-TRIAZINE-2,4-DIAMINE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs6-CHLORO-N-ETHYL-N'-(1-METHYLETHYL)-1,3,5-TRIAZINE-2,4-DIAMINE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004ATRAZINE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
BKH/European Commission, 2000ATRAZINE•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
European Economic CommunityATRAZINE•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
European Economic CommunityATRAZINE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 1788ATRAZINE•Cancer hazards: suspected
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseATRAZINE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007ATRAZINE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Ciba-Geigy Toxicology Data/Indexes 1977ATRAZINE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Commission of the European Communities, Report EUR 1980ATRAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Host-mediated Assay (rat )
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992ATRAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1977ATRAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Dominant Lethal Strain (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1986ATRAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Neurospora crassa )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988ATRAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992ATRAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992ATRAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995ATRAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2001ATRAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2006ATRAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2008ATRAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (rat orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1980ATRAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (hamster lng)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Dominant Lethal Strain (mouse orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination ( Aspergillis nidulans )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Host-mediated Assay (mouse )
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis ( human fbr)
RTECS®- Reproductive Toxicology 2006ATRAZINE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm ( human spr)
RTECS®- Vrachebnoe Delo 1977ATRAZINE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (mammal )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (mammal )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationBKH/European Commission. Towards the establishment of a priority list of substances for further evaluation of their role in endocrine disruption: - preparation of a candidate list of substances as a basis for priority setting. Final report-November 2000. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/01262_en.htm#bkh. Category 1 chemicals from Annex 1: Candidate list of 553 substances. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/bkh_annex_01.pdf, Guillette, L. J., and E. Guillette. Environmental Contaminants and Reproductive Abnormalities in Wildlife: Implications for Public Health? Toxicology and Industrial Health. 12(3): 537-550. 1996., Illinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationEuropean Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationEuropean Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm, National Toxicology Program. Summary for Agents, Substances, Mixtures or Exposure Circumstances to be Reviewed in 2001-2002 for Possible Listing in the Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition. NTP Board of Scientific Counselors, NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC.http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/NewHomeRoc/11thConsideration.html National Toxicology Program. Summary for Agents, Substances, Mixtures or Exposure Circumstances to be Reviewed in 2004-2005 for Possible Listing in the Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition. NTP Board of Scientific Counselors, NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC. http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/NewHomeRoc/12thConsideration.html, California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Toxicity Criteria Database - OEHHA Cancer Potency Values . http://www.oehha.ca.gov/risk/pdf/60204cascpl.pdf., US EPA, Office of Emergency Response and Remediation. Superfund Chemical Data Matrix. http://www.epa.gov/superfund/resources/scdm/index.htm
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
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