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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Arsenic (total)


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Arsenic contaminates drinking water due to mining runoff, erosion of natural deposits, emissions from glass and electronics processing and the use of arsenical compounds as wood preservatives and pesticides. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
43
43
37
Water utilities
11,173
11,173
1,724
People Served
113,356,829
113,356,829
11,149,291

Health Concerns for Arsenic (total):


Arsenic (total) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 43 states have reported detecting Arsenic (total) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Arsenic (total) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Arsenic (total) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California1,23741,950,0941,23741,950,094
Florida68812,064,71068812,064,710
Illinois7417,809,5817417,809,581
Texas1,0435,483,4501,0435,483,450
Arizona5014,596,8725014,596,872
Pennsylvania3363,736,5613363,736,561
New York3323,343,4083323,343,408
New Jersey613,109,859613,109,859
Ohio2872,698,9212872,698,921
Indiana3322,694,3003322,694,300
Utah2202,379,4922202,379,492
Washington5222,222,0665222,222,066
Nevada1322,090,4041322,090,404
Maryland1322,015,6611322,015,661
Wisconsin7731,753,4657731,753,465
Oregon3501,371,9713501,371,971
Missouri2611,338,5122611,338,512
Nebraska4431,317,7644431,317,764
Minnesota3041,110,7323041,110,732
Oklahoma21,069,00021,069,000
New Mexico144977,554144977,554
Massachusetts92933,65092933,650
Idaho298756,833298756,833
Iowa197701,022197701,022
Delaware65664,62165664,621
Connecticut26650,24126650,241
District of Columbia1581,5301581,530
Michigan200524,299200524,299
Maine229492,443229492,443
Alaska279474,209279474,209
Montana241456,405241456,405
Kentucky12451,35912451,359
New Hampshire483430,398483430,398
South Dakota78398,17978398,179
North Carolina33198,23233198,232
Hawaii1170,9211170,921
Alabama5111,4655111,465
Virginia2102,9492102,949
Arkansas1361,1291361,129
Vermont3028,3033028,303
North Dakota2719,0892719,089
West Virginia1211,6881211,688
Wyoming83,48783,487
Total11,173113,356,82911,173113,356,829

The Most Polluted Communities

11,173 water utilities reported detecting Arsenic (total) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Arsenic (total) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Tacna Water Co
Yuma, AZ
2401 of 130 ppb
(30 ppb)
2Kingston Apartments
Rancho Santa Fe, MI
501 of 130 ppb
(30 ppb)
3Maverick Subd Lasher Construction
Caldwell, ID
902 of 230 ppb
(30 ppb)
4Preston Manor
NY
404 of 430 ppb
(30 ppb)
5City of Devils Lake
Devils Lake, ND
7,2227 of 730 ppb
(30 ppb)
6City of Linden
Linden, MI
2,8012 of 229.67 ppb
(29.33 to 30 ppb)
7Denlar Apartments - Buildings 17 & 19
Killingworth, CT
363 of 329.33 ppb
(28 to 30 ppb)
8KB Water Association
Soldotna, AK
1701 of 129.3 ppb
(29.3 ppb)
9Sunny Acres Nursing Center
Bad Axe, MI
302 of 229 ppb
(28 to 30 ppb)
10Spring Creek Mhp
Pahrump, NV
4,1462 of 229 ppb
(28.67 to 29.33 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Arsenic (total)

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.<0.01 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.02 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.02 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10 ppb

Testing Summary for Arsenic (total)

Are tests routinely required for Arsenic (total) by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Arsenic (total) (2004-2009):32,224 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.5 per year

Violation Summary for Arsenic (total)

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Arsenic (total) since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations3,501
Monitoring Violations2,424
Reporting Violations1

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human carcinogen Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Known human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Known human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Known human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - limited evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidence A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Human Genetics 1979
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicologist 2005
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutagenesis 2004
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicologist 2008
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at moderate doses RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung 1942
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung 1942
One or more in vitro tests on microorganisms show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutagenesis 2005

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human developmental toxicant California EPA Proposition 65
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at very low doses RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1977
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at very low doses RTECS®- Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow) 1978
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at moderate doses RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at very low doses RTECS®- Toxicology 1990
One or more animal studies show liver effects at very low doses RTECS®- Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales 1918
One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at very low doses RTECS®- Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales 1918
One or more animal studies show cardiovascular effects at low doses RTECS®- Pediatric Emergency Care 1997
One or more animal studies show blood effects at low doses RTECS®- Pediatric Emergency Care 1997
One or more animal studies show metabolic effects at low doses RTECS®- Pediatric Emergency Care 1997
One or more animal studies show gastrointestinal effects at low doses RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1987
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at low doses RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1993
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Dossing, M, 1985
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 2003
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity Merck & Co
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show gastrointestinal effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1987
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Archivio di Science Biologiche (Bologna) 1938
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1993
One or more animal studies show gastrointestinal effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1987
One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1987
One or more animal studies show blood effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1987
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at low doses RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1987
One or more animal studies show brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect effects at moderate doses RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1987

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses National Library of Medicine HazMap
Single case study detailing occupational hazards National Library of Medicine HazMap
Single case study detailing occupational hazards Frazier , L, 1998

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Keith, L, 1997
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Our Stolen Future Endocrine Disruptors

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show biochemical changes at very low doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood RTECS®- Toxicologist 2005

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingARSENIC•Toxic
•Toxic by inhalation and ingestion
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
European Union - Classification & LabellingARSENIC COMPOUNDS, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THOSE SPECIFIED ELSEWHERE IN THIS ANNEX•Toxic
•Toxic by inhalation and ingestion
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensARSENIC, ELEMENTAL AND INORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS AS•Confirmed human carcinogen (ACGIH classification A1)
FDA Food Additive StatusARSENIC• Used in animal feed
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• 2 parts per million - As residue in liver and kidney of swine - CFR556.60
• 2 parts per million - As residue in edible bypdts of chickens and turkeys - same Code of Federal Regulations reference as appears earlier in paragraph
• 0.5 parts per million - As residue in muscle meat of chickens and turkeys
• in eggs
• and in muscle meat and by-products (other than kidney and li
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsARSENIC• o
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsARSENIC•Prohibited from use in Canadian cosmetics
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsARSENIC•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListARSENIC•This chemical was deemed a low human health priority and was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)ARSENIC, INORGANIC•Group A: Human carcinogen according (EPA classification)
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsARSENIC COMPOUNDS (INORGANIC INCLUDING ARSINE)•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapARSENIC AND COMPOUNDS•Anemia: Anemia, Aplastic;
•Skin Sensitizer - An agent that can induce an allergic reaction in the skin or lungs: Yes;
•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;RS: EPA regulates emissions from copper smelters, glass manufacturing plants, and other facilities. EPA also regulates arsenic in water and use of arsenic in pesticides. Inorganic arsenic compounds are no longer
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensARSENIC AND ARSENIC COMPOUNDS•IARC Group 1: carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensARSENIC COMPOUNDS•IARC Group 1: carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionARSENIC COMPOUNDS, INORGANIC•Known human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsARSENIC
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)ARSENIC COMPOUNDS•Persistent toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsDISSOLVEDARSENIC•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsARSENIC COMPOUNDS•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65ARSENIC (INORGANIC ARSENIC COMPOUNDS)•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
California EPA Proposition 65ARSENIC (INORGANIC OXIDES)•Developmental toxin: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004ARSENIC•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004ARSENIC•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
Benowitz, N, 1992ARSENIC•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1996ARSENIC•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1984ARSENIC•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Frazier , L, 1998ARSENIC•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
Keith, L, 1997ARSENIC•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
Dossing, M, 1985ARSENIC (ORGANIC OR INORGANIC COMPOUNDS)•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003ARSENIC (ORGANIC OR INORGANIC COMPOUNDS)•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003ARSENIC (ORGANIC OR INORGANIC COMPOUNDS)•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensARSENIC (ORGANIC OR INORGANIC COMPOUNDS)•Cancer hazards: suspected
A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational DiseasesARSENIC COMPOUNDS•Cancer hazards: suspected
A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases, 2003ARSENIC COMPOUNDS•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
Merck & CoARSENIC COMPOUNDS•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2003ARSENIC COMPOUNDS•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006ARSENIC• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007ARSENIC• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1993ARSENIC• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (mouse LD50)
RTECS®- Archivio di Science Biologiche (Bologna) 1938ARSENIC• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rabbit LDLo)
RTECS®- Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales 1918ARSENIC• liver - Fatty liver degeneration (guinea pig LDLo)
• kidney or renal system - Other changes (guinea pig LDLo)
RTECS®- Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow) 1978ARSENIC• reproductive - Musculoskeletal system (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Gigiena i Sanitariya 1977ARSENIC• reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)
• reproductive - Pre-implantation mortality (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya 1987ARSENIC• brain, nervous system, or behavioral effect - Ataxia (mouse LD50)
• blood - Changes in cell count (unspecified) (rat TDLo)
• gastrointestinal - Hypermotility, diarrhea (mouse LD50)
• kidney or renal system - Interstitial nephritis (rat TDLo)
• gastrointestinal - Other changes (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Human Genetics 1979ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human unr)
RTECS®- Human Genetics 1979ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human unr)
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 2004ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 2005ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (other fish mul)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human orl)
RTECS®- Pediatric Emergency Care 1997ARSENIC• blood - Changes in leucocyte (WBC) count (child TDLo)
• cardiovascular - EKG changes not diagnostic of above (child TDLo)
• metabolic - Metabolic acidosis (child TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2005ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2005ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human lng)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2005ARSENIC• biochemical - Other (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003ARSENIC• reproductive - Hepatobiliary system (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lng)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003ARSENIC• immune system - Uncharacterized (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2008ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lym)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2005ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2005ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human lng)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003ARSENIC• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lng)
RTECS®- Toxicology 1990ARSENIC• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
RTECS®- Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung 1942ARSENIC• mutagenic - liver tumor formations - equivocal (rabbit TDLo)
• cancer - respiratory tumor formations - equivocal (rabbit TDLo)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
FDA Food Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, DiPalma, J.A., J. Cunningham, J. Herrera, T. McCaffery, and D. Wolf. Occupational and Industrial Toxin Exposures and the Gastrointestinal Tract. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 86(9): 1107-1117. 1991. (Table 2: Selected Agents with Purported Digestive System Injury)., US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995., Zimmerman, H.J. and J.H. Lewis. Chemical- and Toxin-Induced Hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 24(4): 1027-1045. 1995. (Table 3: Forms of environmental hepatic injury).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationBenowitz, N.L. Cardiotoxicity in the Workplace. Occupational Medicine. 7(3): 465-477. 1992. (Table 1: Chemical Toxins and Cardiovascular Disease)., US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Kristensen, T. S. Cardiovascular Diseases and the Work Environment. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health. 15:245-264. 1989. (Table 5: Classification of possible risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the work environment)., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Lu, F.C. Basic Toxicology. 2nd Edition. 1991., Nemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Landrigan, P.J., Goyer, R.A. Clarkson, T.W., Sandler, D.P., Smith, J.H., Thun, M.J., and R. Wedeen. The Work-Relatedness of Renal Disease. Archives of Environmental Health. 39(3): 225-230. 1984. (Table 2: Estimated Numbers of Workers in the United States with Potential Occupational Exposures to Known or Suspect Nephrotoxins)., Merck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm, Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationFrazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf., California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKeith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationDossing, M. and P. Skinhoj. Occupational Liver Injury. Present State of Knowledge and Future Perspectives. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 56:1-21. 1985. (Table 2: Chemically induced liver injury: morphologic features and examples of confirmed and suspected causative agents)., Zimmerman, H.J. and J.H. Lewis. Chemical- and Toxin-Induced Hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 24(4): 1027-1045. 1995. (Table 3: Forms of environmental hepatic injury).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-MC
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-MC
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained at http://monographs.iarc.fr/monoeval/grlist.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationA Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationMerck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/tables/226tb1.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
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