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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Antimony (total)


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Antimony is a metal that enters water from petroleum refinery pollution, fire retardants, ceramics, electronics and solder. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
40
23
20
Water utilities
972
63
51
People Served
21,528,681
443,758
350,805

Health Concerns for Antimony (total):


Antimony (total) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 40 states have reported detecting Antimony (total) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Antimony (total) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Antimony (total) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California803,605,04414124,067
Florida1595,766,763368,865
New York59373,217462,169
Massachusetts12132,213254,332
Maryland281,983,266547,621
New Jersey10410,217116,653
Illinois39174,215415,390
Missouri34255,577112,155
Utah20794,158311,200
Nevada6338,72928,734
North Carolina24208,45567,801
Delaware10285,68616,000
Ohio241,718,68823,354
Maine237,56432,003
Nebraska933,13411,640
New Hampshire929,3063961
Wisconsin2121,485,2881545
Indiana611,463,033297
Alaska27235,186160
Montana71,936130
South Dakota14140,599129
Pennsylvania12227,456127
Kentucky436,711125
Connecticut10560,61400
Oregon4544,25500
Hawaii1170,92100
Arizona6170,25300
Virginia1102,12400
Rhode Island170,00000
Minnesota1357,59200
New Mexico2147,57700
Idaho737,14800
Oklahoma321,73400
Alabama111,55000
Texas510,73900
Michigan109,67400
Arkansas14,42000
West Virginia32,60400
Iowa190000
Vermont113500
Total97221,528,68163443,758

The Most Polluted Communities

972 water utilities reported detecting Antimony (total) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Antimony (total) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Taiga Woodlands Subdivision
Fairbanks, AK
605 of 59.71 ppb
(5.55 to 12.5 ppb)
2Muirfield Cluster
Stratham, NH
6412 of 128.79 ppb
(7 to 15.9 ppb)
3Ski West Village Water System
Arvin, CA
301 of 18.2 ppb
(8.2 ppb)
4Cottonwood Grove Mobile Home Park
Rapid City, SD
291 of 18 ppb
(8 ppb)
5SL Co Srvc Area #3-Snowbrd
Riverton, UT
3,2001 of 17.5 ppb
(7.5 ppb)
6Pioneer Hills Mhp
Reno, NV
4279 of 97.11 ppb
(5 to 10 ppb)
7Grandeur Mobile Home Estates
Carmel, ME
10018 of 186.67 ppb
(2.2 to 17.67 ppb)
8Farm & Fleet of Dodgeville
Dodgeville, WI
5451 of 26.5 ppb
(0 to 13 ppb)
9Woodland Run MH S/D
Fayetteville, NC
1191 of 16 ppb
(6 ppb)
10Annawood Subdivision
Tallahassee, FL
1151 of 16 ppb
(6 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Antimony (total)

StandardDescriptionLevel
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.5.6 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.6 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.6 ppb
Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer riskConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.6 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.20 ppb

Testing Summary for Antimony (total)

Are tests routinely required for Antimony (total) by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Antimony (total) (2004-2009):29,490 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.3 per year

Violation Summary for Antimony (total)

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Antimony (total) since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations23
Monitoring Violations1,232
Reporting Violations0

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Known human cardiovascular toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Known human respiratory toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Known human sense organ toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human gastrointestinal toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human respiratory toxicant CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at low doses RTECS®- "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N 1982
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at low doses RTECS®- Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement 1975
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at low doses RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1993
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of cardiovascular toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1990
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show broad systemic effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement 1975
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses National Library of Medicine HazMap
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses National Library of Medicine HazMap
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Single case study detailing occupational hazards US EPA, 9204

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity CHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingANTIMONY COMPOUNDS, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE TETROXIDE (SB2O4), PENTOXIDE (SB2O5), TRISULPHIDE (SB2S3), PENTASULPHIDE (SB2S5) AND THOSE SPECIFIED ELSEWHERE IN THIS ANNEX•Harmful
•Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed
•Dangerous for the environment
•Toxic to aquatic organisms
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsANTIMONY• o
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsANTIMONY•Prohibited from use in Canadian cosmetics
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsANTIMONY•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListANTIMONY•This chemical was deemed a low human health priority and was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsANTIMONY COMPOUNDS•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapANTIMONY•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 0.5 mg/m3;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 469 mg/m3;
•Bioaccumulates: Yes;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 0.5 mg/m3;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 1: must be preheated;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 50 mg/m3;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 0.5 mg/m3, inhalable fraction;
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsDISSOLVEDANTIMONY•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsANTIMONY COMPOUNDS•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Benowitz, N, 1992ANTIMONY•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterANTIMONY•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 1990ANTIMONY•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 9204ANTIMONY•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterANTIMONY COMPOUNDS•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support CenterANTIMONY COMPOUNDS•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensANTIMONY COMPOUNDS•Cancer hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006ANTIMONY• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007ANTIMONY• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N 1982ANTIMONY• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1993ANTIMONY• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (mouse LD50)
RTECS®- Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement 1975ANTIMONY• broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (guinea pig LD50)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationBenowitz, N.L. Cardiotoxicity in the Workplace. Occupational Medicine. 7(3): 465-477. 1992. (Table 1: Chemical Toxins and Cardiovascular Disease)., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, Nemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online., Frazier , L. and M. L. Hage (eds.). Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace, Wiley Europe, 1998. Table 10 (Partial List of Reproductive Toxicants) available at http://www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu/homepage/safety/chemhygiene_table_repro.pdf.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-MC
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N 1982RTECS®- "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982 -,22,1982
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1993RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov V-VII groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing V-VII group elements), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1989. -,105,1993
RTECS®- Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement 1975RTECS®- Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. (Stuttgart, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-5, 1975-76. Discontinued. 1,1,1975

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