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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Anthracene


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Anthracene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) released from fossil fuel combustion, wastewater treatment, waste incineration; it is used to make dyes and plastics and leaches from water distribution system tanks and pipes lined with coal tar.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
3
-
-
Water utilities
6
-
-
People Served
237,441
-
-

Health Concerns for Anthracene:


Anthracene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 3 states have reported detecting Anthracene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Anthracene contamination
SystemsPopulation
Delaware1201,000
California232,810
Arkansas33,631
Total6237,441

The Most Polluted Communities

6 water utilities reported detecting Anthracene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Anthracene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Lost Hills Utility District
Lost Hills, CA
2,7721 of 20.1 ppb
(0 to 0.2 ppb)
2Bellefonte Water
Harrison, AR
4451 of 20.08 ppb
(0 to 0.15 ppb)
3City of Ceres
Ceres, CA
30,0381 of 40.03 ppb
(0 to 0.13 ppb)
4Strong Waterworks
Strong, AR
9921 of 10< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.08 ppb)
5Rector Waterworks
Rector, AR
2,1941 of 13< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.05 ppb)
6Artesian Water Company
Newark, DE
201,0001 of 73< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.1 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Anthracene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.2000 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.8300 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.10000 ppb

Testing Summary for Anthracene

Are tests routinely required for Anthracene by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Anthracene (2004-2009):2,591 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans EU PTBs - PRIO database & Secondary PRIO database
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Emerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literature
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)
Not suspected to be persistent Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption Keith, L, 1997

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1979
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity Klaassen, C, 1996
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1978

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive
Suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsANTHRACENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveANTHRACENE•Priority substance in EU water policy
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensANTHRACENE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)ANTHRACENE•Bioaccumulative toxicant under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsANTHRACENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Great Lakes Binational Strategy, Tier 2 concern (moderate), targeting for monitoring/testing
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernANTHRACENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concern
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsANTHRACENE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Emerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literatureANTHRACENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Limited or emerging evidence in open scientific literature
EU PTBs - PRIO database & Secondary PRIO databaseANTHRACENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - European Chemicals Bureau PBT working group
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)ANTHRACENE•Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, priority chemical for voluntary waste/emission reductions
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)ANTHRACENE•Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity (EPA classification)
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004ANTHRACENE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
Keith, L, 1997ANTHRACENE•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
Klaassen, C, 1996ANTHRACENE•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsANTHRACENE•Prohibited from use in Canadian cosmetics
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListANTHRACENE•This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsANTHRACENE• o
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1978ANTHRACENE• skin - Primary skin irritant (mouse )
RTECS®- Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku 1985ANTHRACENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988ANTHRACENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (mouse lym)
RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1981ANTHRACENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (rat emb)
RTECS®- JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1979ANTHRACENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Host-mediated Assay (mouse )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987ANTHRACENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (mouse ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988ANTHRACENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995ANTHRACENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004ANTHRACENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004ANTHRACENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982ANTHRACENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981ANTHRACENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA repair (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981ANTHRACENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Phage Inhibition Capacity (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981ANTHRACENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster kdy)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible ConcernOSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Emerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literatureEmerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literature
EU PTBs - PRIO database & Secondary PRIO databaseEU (European Union). 2006. Persistent, bioaccumulative chemicals identified in PRIO database - a tool for risk reduction of chemicals. Secondary PRIO database - a tool for risk reduction of chemicals. Secondary Kemi. Place Published, Kemi-Swedish Chemicals Inspectorate.
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKeith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Timbrell, J.A. Introduction to Toxicology. Taylor and Francis, New York. 1995. (Table 5.1: Types of skin sensitizers).
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1978RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 4,333,1978
RTECS®- Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku 1985RTECS®- Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku. Bulletin of the Institute of Hygienic Sciences. (Kokuritsu Eisei Shikenjo Kagaku, 18-1 Bushitsu Johobu, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158, Japan) V.1- (103),64,1985
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1988RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 12(Suppl 13),103,1988
RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology 1981RTECS®- JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1,190,1981
RTECS®- JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1979RTECS®- JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.61-79, 1978-87. For publisher information, see JNCIEQ. 62,911,1979
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 192,185,1987
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1988RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 203,155,1988
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 341,235,1995
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 557,99,2004
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 558,181,2004
RTECS®- Personal Communication from J 1982RTECS®- Personal Communication from J.F. Sina, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, PA 19486, Oct. 26, 1982 26OCT1982
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1,195,1981
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1,224,1981
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1981RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1,626,1981

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