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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Aluminum


Status: For this chemical EPA has established a non-enforceable guideline called a "secondary standard," regulating it for aesthetic or cosmetic concerns (taste, odor, tooth discoloration, etc.)

Aluminum is a metal released from metal refineries and mining operations.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
31
22
22
Water utilities
2,744
692
692
People Served
69,564,159
11,452,602
11,452,602

Health Concerns for Aluminum:


Aluminum Exposure by State

Water utilities in 31 states have reported detecting Aluminum in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Aluminum contaminationWater suppliers reporting Aluminum above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
California74837,880,5462035,389,364
Virginia2201,474,1002181,427,507
Alabama1622,592,055321,151,562
New Jersey1624,279,02233762,494
Texas6597,432,43373612,169
Arkansas1981,727,21425566,134
New York33553,08210507,273
Kentucky1433,167,46841463,402
Idaho3189,4283189,428
New Hampshire11141,6421133,000
Missouri239946,00528128,328
Iowa127,640127,640
Illinois2068,476524,942
Nevada141,872,963321,938
Ohio91,613,702118,135
Delaware13382,040315,598
Washington401,297,65844,793
Alaska6237,29213,350
Vermont22,50012,400
Maine11,87011,870
Wisconsin39217,56841,115
New Mexico21,2551160
Massachusetts22,015,85300
Pennsylvania8490,79700
Oklahoma1471,00000
Florida1416,30300
Montana160,00000
West Virginia22,83300
North Dakota267000
Nebraska156000
Maryland118400
Total2,74469,564,15969211,452,602

The Most Polluted Communities

2,744 water utilities reported detecting Aluminum in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Aluminum level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Selma Estates
VA
251 of 1170000 ppb
(170000 ppb)
2Tyson Hills Subdivision
Roanoke, VA
401 of 1168000 ppb
(168000 ppb)
3Radford Army Ammunition Plant - 419
Radford, VA
1,3802 of 2143000 ppb
(142000 to 144000 ppb)
4Town of Richlands
Richlands, VA
4,1444 of 4135000 ppb
(110000 to 150000 ppb)
5Montvale Water, Inc.
Montvale, VA
7251 of 1123000 ppb
(123000 ppb)
6Town of Amherst
Amherst, VA
5,0763 of 3119000 ppb
(75000 to 145000 ppb)
7Wayside Acres Subdivision # 1
Danville, VA
561 of 1117000 ppb
(117000 ppb)
8Twin Boulders Subdivision
Roanoke, VA
901 of 1116000 ppb
(116000 ppb)
9Duffield_scott Co Psa
Weber City, VA
2,0002 of 2115000 ppb
(110000 to 120000 ppb)
10Park Place
Moneta, VA
4801 of 1113000 ppb
(113000 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Aluminum

StandardDescriptionLevel
National Secondary Drinking Water RegulationsA National Secondary Drinking Water Regulation is a non-enforceable guideline regarding contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (such as taste, odor, or color). Some states choose to adopt them as enforceable standards. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 200 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.600 ppb

Testing Summary for Aluminum

Are tests routinely required for Aluminum by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Aluminum (2004-2009):10,132 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Aluminum

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Aluminum since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations2
Monitoring Violations39
Reporting Violations0

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human nervous system toxicant ATSDR, 2008

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human immune and respiratory toxicant or allergen - strong evidence Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at moderate doses RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1988
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2001
One or more animal studies show developmental effects at high doses RTECS®- Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2001

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity Klaassen, C, 1996
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity LaDou, J, 1990
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Enhanced skin absorption

Type of concern: Reference:
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skin Nanomaterial Database

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingALUMINIUM POWDER (PYROPHORIC)•Highly flammable
•Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases
European Union - Classification & LabellingALUMINIUM POWDER (STABILISED)•Highly flammable
•Highly flammable
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsALUMINUM• Asthmagen sensitizer
FDA Color Additive StatusALUMINUM POWDER•Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmetics
•Color additive approved by FDA for cosmetics used around eyes
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListALUMINUM•This chemical was deemed a low human health priority and was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionALUMINUMHH-CAT3;WF-CAT3
CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and HandbookALUMINUM POWDER•Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
National Library of Medicine HazMapALUMINUM•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 15 mg/m3(total dust), 5 mg/m3(respirable fraction);
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 10 mg/m3;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 3: may ignite at ambient temperature;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 1.5 mg/m3, respirable fraction;
Nanomaterial DatabaseALUMINUM•potential nano-scale ingredient
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsALUMINUM•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
ATSDR, 2008ATSDR ToxFAQ
FDA, 2010ALUMINUM POWDERAccording to FDA, this color additive is not permitted in lip products.
Klaassen, C, 1996ALUMINUM•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
LaDou, J, 1990ALUMINUM•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005ALUMINUM POWDER• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006ALUMINUM POWDER• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007ALUMINUM POWDER• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1988ALUMINUM POWDER• reproductive - Behavioral (rabbit TDLo)
RTECS®- Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2001ALUMINUM POWDER• reproductive - Behavioral (mouse TDLo)
• developmental - Other postnatal measures or effects (mouse TDLo)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
FDA Color Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and HandbookCTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Nanomaterial DatabaseNanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Open scientific literatureATSDR. Aluminum. Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine ToxFAQs September 2008
Open scientific literatureFDA. 2010. Color Additives Permitted for Use in Cosmetics: Table. April 30, 2008; Updated June 20, 2008 and February 22, 2010. http://www.fda.gov/cosmetics/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/voluntarycosmeticsregistrationprogramvcrp/onlineregistration/ucm109084.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationKlaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Lu, F.C. Basic Toxicology. 2nd Edition. 1991., Nemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationLaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2005
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva 1988RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov I-IV groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing I-IV group elements), Filov V.A., Chimia, 1988. -,212,1988
RTECS®- Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2001RTECS®- Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987- 23,365,2001

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