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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Alachlor (Lasso)


Status: Regulated - EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Alachlor is a widely-used herbicide applied to corn, soy and sorghum; it is carcinogenic to animals and potentially carcinogenic in people. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
15
15
-
Water utilities
41
41
-
People Served
2,207,130
2,207,130
-

Health Concerns for Alachlor (Lasso):


Alachlor (Lasso) Exposure by State

Water utilities in 15 states have reported detecting Alachlor (Lasso) in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Alachlor (Lasso) contaminationWater suppliers reporting Alachlor (Lasso) above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Pennsylvania21,600,04021,600,040
Delaware5203,7065203,706
Ohio8156,7318156,731
California2110,8482110,848
Maryland451,526451,526
Texas650,470650,470
Nebraska315,087315,087
Florida19,44519,445
Wisconsin33,12833,128
Illinois12,90012,900
Iowa12,02312,023
New York18001800
Indiana22262226
North Carolina11081108
Connecticut192192
Total412,207,130412,207,130

The Most Polluted Communities

41 water utilities reported detecting Alachlor (Lasso) in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Alachlor (Lasso) level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Keenhold Assoc Water Sys
PA
401 of 12 ppb
(2 ppb)
2Hilltop Court Mobile Homes
River Falls, WI
644 of 40.32 ppb
(0.25 to 0.43 ppb)
3Lodi Waterworks
Lodi, WI
3,00610 of 100.3 ppb
(0.2 to 0.4 ppb)
4City of Taylor
Taylor, TX
15,1971 of 20.28 ppb
(0 to 0.55 ppb)
5Ubc - Timber Roots Mtd, Plant #741
Brownsville, WI
584 of 40.2 ppb
(0.1 to 0.3 ppb)
6Lynn Hill Court
Monticello, IN
1122 of 20.15 ppb
(0.1 to 0.2 ppb)
7Scwa, Lantern Hill Division (Lnh)
Gales Ferry, CT
921 of 40.13 ppb
(0 to 0.51 ppb)
8City of Cameron
Cameron, TX
5,6352 of 120.12 ppb
(0 to 0.88 ppb)
9City of Thrall
Thrall, TX
8371 of 40.12 ppb
(0 to 0.48 ppb)
10Meadows AT Cubbage Pond
Milford, DE
2014 of 140.1 ppb
(0 to 0.6 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Alachlor (Lasso)

StandardDescriptionLevel
Maximum Contaminant Limit Goal (MCLG)A non-enforceable health goal that is set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.4 ppb
Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL)The enforceable standard which defines the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to health-based limits (Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, or MCLGs) as feasible using the best available analytical and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2 ppb
California Public Health GoalsDefined by the State of California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) as the level of contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. For acutely toxic substances, levels are set at which scientific evidence indicates that no known or anticipated adverse effects on health will occur, plus an adequate margin-of safety. PHGs for carcinogens or other substances which can cause chronic disease shall be based solely on health effects without regard to cost impacts and shall be set at levels which OEHHA has determined do not pose any significant risk to health.4 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.40 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 1-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Children's health-based limit for 10-day exposureConcentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.100 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.400 ppb

Testing Summary for Alachlor (Lasso)

Are tests routinely required for Alachlor (Lasso) by federal law?Yes
Water suppliers reporting tests for Alachlor (Lasso) (2004-2009):22,856 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Violation Summary for Alachlor (Lasso)

Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes the following violations of federal standards for Alachlor (Lasso) since 2004

Maximum Contaminant Level Exceedance Violations0
Monitoring Violations1,882
Reporting Violations0

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human immune system toxicant or allergen National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies European Economic Community

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Cancer - moderate evidence - hematologic CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - moderate evidence - gastrointestinal CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1999
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1997
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V 1999
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Khigiena i Zdraveopazvane 1986
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Journal of Agricultural Science 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984

Endocrine disruption

Type of concern: Reference:
Human disruptor - strong evidence European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of wildlife and the environment disruption European Commission on Endocrine Disruption
Limited evidence of endocrine disruption BKH/European Commission, 2000
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Human reproductive toxicant - moderate evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity US EPA, 1788

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of sense organ toxicity European Economic Community
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity US EPA, 1788
Limited evidence of kidney toxicity US EPA, 1788
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Water Framework Directive

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingALACHLOR•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
•Harmful
•Harmful if swallowed
•May cause sensitization by skin contact
•Dangerous for the environment
•Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensALACHLOR•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
FDA Food Additive StatusALACHLOR• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• Residues in or on agricultural commodities - 40CFR 180.249
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemALACHLOR•EPA: probable endocrine disruptor
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionALACHLORHH-CAT1;WF-CAT2
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsALACHLOR•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveALACHLOR•Priority substance in EU water policy
National Library of Medicine HazMapALACHLOR•Skin Sensitizer - An agent that can induce an allergic reaction in the skin or lungs: Yes;
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsALACHLORThyroid (decrease of thyroid hormone levels; increase in TSH)
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsALACHLOR•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65ALACHLOR•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
BKH/European Commission, 2000ALACHLOR•Endocrine toxicity hazards: suspected
European Economic CommunityALACHLOR•Immunotoxicity hazards: suspected
European Economic CommunityALACHLOR•Skin or sense organ toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 1788ALACHLOR•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 1788ALACHLOR•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, 1788ALACHLOR•Kidney toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensALACHLOR•Cancer hazards: recognized
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007ALACHLOR• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992ALACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Journal of Agricultural Science 1985ALACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (other micro-organisms )
RTECS®- Khigiena i Zdraveopazvane 1986ALACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983ALACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat ipr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984ALACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987ALACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992ALACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995ALACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1997ALACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1999ALACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test ( human lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human lym)
RTECS®- Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V 1999ALACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003ALACHLOR• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (rat orl)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
FDA Food Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationBKH/European Commission. Towards the establishment of a priority list of substances for further evaluation of their role in endocrine disruption: - preparation of a candidate list of substances as a basis for priority setting. Final report-November 2000. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/01262_en.htm#bkh. Category 1 chemicals from Annex 1: Candidate list of 553 substances. http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/bkh_annex_01.pdf, Illinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Japanese National Institute of Health Sciences. Lists of Paradigmatic Chemicals. http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/endocrine-e/paradigm/paradigm.html, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationEuropean Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationEuropean Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 1992RTECS®- Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 19,77,1992
RTECS®- Journal of Agricultural Science 1985RTECS®- Journal of Agricultural Science. (Cambridge Univ. Press, 32 E. 57th St., New York, NY 10022) V.1- 104,571,1985
RTECS®- Khigiena i Zdraveopazvane 1986RTECS®- Khigiena i Zdraveopazvane. Hygiene and Sanitation. (Hemus, Blvd. Russki 6, Sofia, Bulgaria) V.9- 29(1),26,1986
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1983RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 116,341,1983
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1984RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 136,233,1984
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1987RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 188,241,1987
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1992RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 280,291,1992
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1995RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 344,41,1995
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1997RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 395,159,1997
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1999RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 441,95,1999
RTECS®- Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V 1999RTECS®- Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, 49,202,1999
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981- 72(Supp 1),228,2003

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