The Power of Information

National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Acrylonitrile


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Acrylonitrile is a chemical intermediate used in the manufacture of plastics, synthetic rubber, antioxidants, pharmaceuticals and dyes. [read more]

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
1
1
-
Water utilities
2
2
-
People Served
204,400
204,400
-

Health Concerns for Acrylonitrile:


Acrylonitrile Exposure by State

Water utilities in 1 states have reported detecting Acrylonitrile in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Acrylonitrile contaminationWater suppliers reporting Acrylonitrile above health-based limits
SystemsPopulationSystemsPopulation
Delaware2204,4002204,400
Total2204,4002204,400

The Most Polluted Communities

2 water utilities reported detecting Acrylonitrile in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Acrylonitrile level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Thomas Cove
Newark, DE
3,4001 of 250.2 ppb
(0 to 5 ppb)
2Artesian Water Company
Newark, DE
201,0002 of 1310.06 ppb
(0 to 5 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Acrylonitrile

StandardDescriptionLevel
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.05 ppb
One in one million (10-6) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.0.06 ppb
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.0.06 ppb-6 ppb
One in ten thousand (10-4) Cancer RiskThe concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.6 ppb

Testing Summary for Acrylonitrile

Are tests routinely required for Acrylonitrile by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Acrylonitrile (2004-2009):3,162 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human immune system toxicant or allergen National Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies European Union - Classification & Labelling

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
Possible human carcinogen European Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible human carcinogen EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogen NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicity NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidence CHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Cancer - limited evidence Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1990
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Xenobiotica 1983
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Research 1986
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicology 1980
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1985
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1986
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1979
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 2000
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U 1977
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1984
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutagenesis 2005

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicity Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Known human lung and skin toxicant European Union - Classification & Labelling
Known human respiratory toxicant EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at low doses RTECS®- Acute Toxicity Data 1990
Classified as toxic or harmful European Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity National Library of Medicine HazMap
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidence Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
Limited evidence of developmental toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses European Union - Classification & Labelling
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,6,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 39,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
Human skin irritant - moderate evidence National Library of Medicine HazMap
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at very low doses RTECS®- Acute Toxicity Data 1990
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at high doses RTECS®- Industrial Medicine 1948

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity European Union - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingACRYLONITRILE•Highly flammable
•Highly flammable
•May cause cancer
•May cause cancer
•Toxic
•Toxic by inhalation, skin contact, and ingestion
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
•Irritating to respiratory system and skin
•May cause sensitization by skin contact
•Dangerous for the environment
•Toxic to aquatic organisms
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACRYLONITRILE•Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ACGIH classification A3)
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsACRYLONITRILE• o
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsACRYLONITRILE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Environment Canada Domestic Substance List2-PROPENENITRILE•This chemical was deemed a low human health priority and was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)ACRYLONITRILE•Group B1: Probable human carcinogen - limited evidence for humans (EPA classification)
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsACRYLONITRILE•Prohibited in EU cosmetics: must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsACRYLONITRILE•Hazardous air pollutant under Clean Air Act
National Library of Medicine HazMapACRYLONITRILE•Skin Designation (ACGIH) - Danger of cutaneous absorption (ACGIH): Yes;
•Skin Sensitizer - An agent that can induce an allergic reaction in the skin or lungs: Yes;
•Dermatotoxin: Skin Burns;
•Reproductive Toxin - A chemical that is toxic to the reproductive system, including defects in the progeny and injury to male and female reproductive function: Yes;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 2 ppm, Ceiling(OSHA) = 10 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 850 ppm;
•Other Poison: Chemical Asphyxiant;
•IARC Carcinogen - International Agency for Research on Cancer; classifies chemicals as established (1), probable (2a), or possible (2b) human carcinogens: Possible Carcinogen;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 2 ppm;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 3: may ignite at ambient temperature;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 85 ppm;
•Lacrimator - A substance that irritates the eyes and induces the flow of tears: Yes;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 22 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 1.6 ppm;
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensACRYLONITRILE•IARC Group 2B: possible human carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Carcinogens)
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensACRYLONITRILE•Potential occupational carcinogen according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionACRYLONITRILE•Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (National Toxicology Program classification)
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)2PROPENENITRILE•Toxicant of concern under Canada's Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics program - targeted for elimination or reduction
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs2PROPENENITRILE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
California EPA Proposition 65ACRYLONITRILE•Carcinogen: California Proposition 65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004ACRYLONITRILE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004ACRYLONITRILE•Developmental toxicity hazards: suspected
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004ACRYLONITRILE•Reproductive toxicity hazards: suspected
US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center, 2003ACRYLONITRILE•Respiratory toxicity hazards: suspected
Proposition 65 List of CarcinogensACRYLONITRILE•Cancer hazards: recognized
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseACRYLONITRILE•Chemicals Shown to Cause Mammary Gland Tumors in Animal Studies
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007ACRYLONITRILE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- Acute Toxicity Data 1990ACRYLONITRILE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1986ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse fbr)
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1986ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat orl)
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 2000ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1983ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (rat orl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (rat orl)
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1984ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (mammal lym)
RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1984ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Industrial Medicine 1948ACRYLONITRILE• skin - Primary skin irritant ( human )
RTECS®- JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1979ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (hamster emb)
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,6,1971ACRYLONITRILE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 2005ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction ( Aspergillis nidulans )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1990ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human oth)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange ( human oth)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Drosophila melanogaster ihl)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Escherichia coli )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis ( human ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage ( human ihl)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: sperm ( human ihl)
RTECS®- National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U 1977ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 39,1926 1994ACRYLONITRILE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994ACRYLONITRILE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Gene Conversion and Mitotic Recombination ( Aspergillis nidulans )
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (Drosophila melanogaster orl)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Damage (hamster ovr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Micronucleus test (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (rat lvr)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lvr)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster ovr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sister Chromatid Exchange (hamster ovr)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism ( human lym)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells ( human lym)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Mammalian Somatic Cells (mouse lym)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (mouse emb)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (mouse emb)
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Morphological Transform (hamster emb)
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: (mouse orl)
RTECS®- Toxicology 1980ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: body fluid assay (rat )
RTECS®- Xenobiotica 1983ACRYLONITRILE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Adduct (rat lvr)
• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: other mutation test systems (rat lvr)



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
NIOSH Occupational CarcinogensNIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, US EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationUS EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document 'Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels'. Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews DatabaseRudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- Acute Toxicity Data 1990RTECS®- Acute Toxicity Data. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Part B. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1- 1,114,1990
RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland) 1986RTECS®- Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 32,293,1986
RTECS®- Cancer Research 1986RTECS®- Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 46,3932,1986
RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London) 2000RTECS®- Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 21,727,2000
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1983RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 47,363,1983
RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions 1984RTECS®- Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 51,167,1984
RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1984RTECS®- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 8,162,1984
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1985RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 23,115,1985
RTECS®- Industrial Medicine 1948RTECS®- Industrial Medicine. (Chicago, IL) V.1-18, 1932-49. For publisher information, see IOHSA5. 17,199,1948
RTECS®- JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1979RTECS®- JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.61-79, 1978-87. For publisher information, see JNCIEQ. 62,1025,1979
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,6,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,6,1971
RTECS®- Mutagenesis 2005RTECS®- Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 20,217,2005
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 147,288,1985
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1990RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 241,355,1990
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1991RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 259,165,1991
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 45,283,1977
RTECS®- Mutation Research 1977RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 48,271,1977
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2003RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 537,93,2003
RTECS®- National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U 1977RTECS®- National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda. 5AUG1977
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 39,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 39,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 5,225,1985
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 5,271,1985
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 5,307,1985
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 5,325,1985
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 5,359,1985
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 5,371,1985
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 5,397,1985
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 5,427,1985
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 5,433,1985
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 5,497,1985
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 5,555,1985
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 5,639,1985
RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research 1985RTECS®- Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 5,665,1985
RTECS®- Toxicologist 2003RTECS®- Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981- 72(Supp 1),228,2003
RTECS®- Toxicology 1980RTECS®- Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 16,67,1980
RTECS®- Xenobiotica 1983RTECS®- Xenobiotica. (Taylor & Francis Ltd., 4 John St., London WC1N 2ET, UK) V.1- 13,19,1983

"RTECS®" is a United States trademark owned and licensed under authority of the U.S. Government, by and through MDL Information Systems, Inc.