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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Acetone


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Acetone is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate used in manufacture of plastic, fibers, cosmetics, photographic film and many other kinds of consumer goods.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
10
-
-
Water utilities
456
-
-
People Served
9,673,049
-
-

Health Concerns for Acetone:


Acetone Exposure by State

Water utilities in 10 states have reported detecting Acetone in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Acetone contamination
SystemsPopulation
Texas3316,840,190
New Jersey171,191,029
California7606,250
Minnesota23481,589
Delaware17384,993
New Mexico789,606
New Hampshire4576,459
New York41,350
Nevada41,268
Ohio1315
Total4569,673,049

The Most Polluted Communities

456 water utilities reported detecting Acetone in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Acetone level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Lakeview Subdivision
Kerrville, TX
961 of 1240.9 ppb
(240.9 ppb)
2River Front Village
Kerrville, TX
2641 of 1169.4 ppb
(169.4 ppb)
3Covelo Mobile Home Park
Covelo, CA
751 of 1105 ppb
(105 ppb)
4Pipestone
Pipestone, MN
4,2801 of 4102.5 ppb
(0 to 410 ppb)
5Lincoln Chan-Home Ranch
Courtland, CA
501 of 197 ppb
(97 ppb)
6Wilderness The
Kerrville, TX
1601 of 175 ppb
(75 ppb)
7Bath Village Water Works
Bath, NH
951 of 173 ppb
(73 ppb)
8Mapache Trailer Park
Stockton, CA
2751 of 157 ppb
(57 ppb)
9City of Rio Vista
Rio Vista, TX
6501 of 150 ppb
(50 ppb)
1012 HI Mobile Home Park
Montrose, MN
3001 of 350 ppb
(0 to 150 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Acetone

StandardDescriptionLevel
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.6000 ppb

Testing Summary for Acetone

Are tests routinely required for Acetone by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Acetone (2004-2009):4,608 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology 1946
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at very low doses RTECS®- Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005 -,27,2005
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priority Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at low doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 2001
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2002
One or more animal studies show liver effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 3122
One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 3122
One or more animal studies show blood effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 3122
One or more animal studies show sense organ effects at high doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient) RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1943

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1984
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia" 1994
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1983
Not likely to be carcinogenic in humans EPA Water Disinfection By-Products Carcinogenicity

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Type of concern: Reference:
Classified as irritant European Union - Classification & Labelling
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1970
One or more animal studies show skin irritation at moderate doses RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at high doses RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5975

Occupational hazards

Type of concern: Reference:
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,3,1971
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to high doses RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be an environmental toxin Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

Type of concern: Reference:
Occupational hazards related to handling European Union - Classification & Labelling

Neurotoxicity

Type of concern: Reference:
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study National Library of Medicine HazMap

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of concern: Reference:
Not suspected to be bioaccumulative Environment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Type of concern: Reference:
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Everything Added to Food



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
European Union - Classification & LabellingACETONE;;PROPAN-2-ONE; PROPANONE•Highly flammable
•Highly flammable
•Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)
FDA Food Additive StatusACETONE• Food additive: solvent
• Food additive: food additive for which a petition has been filed and a regulation issued
• 30 parts per million - As residual solvent in spice oleoresins 173.210
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsACETONE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsACETONE• S
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsACETONE• S
EPA Water Disinfection By-Products CarcinogenicityACETONE•Low concern for potential carcinogenicity
FDA Everything Added to FoodACETONE• Fully up-to-date toxicology information has been sought.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance List2-PROPANONE•This chemical was deemed a moderate human health priority and was flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for suspected persistence.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)ACETONEData are inadequate for an assessment of human carcinogenic potential
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List2-PROPANONE•The chemical has been reported as used in fragrance compounds by IFRA affiliated member companies in 2008.
National Library of Medicine HazMapACETONE•Neurotoxin: CNS Solvent Syndrome;
•PEL (OSHA) - Permissible exposure limit (OSHA): 1000 ppm;
•STEL (ACGIH) - Short-term exposure limits (ACGIH): 750 ppm;
•RD50 - Concentration producing a 50% decrease in respiratory rate in experimental animals following a 10-minute exposure: 23480 ppm;
•LC50 - Lethal concentration in 50% of animals tested: 51755 ppm;
•TLV (ACGIH) - Threshold limit value (ACGIH): 500 ppm;
•BEI - Biological Exposure Indices (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene, ACGIH): Acetone in urine = 50 mg/L; end of shift;;
•Flammability (NFPA) - NFPA flammability code: 0 = will not burn; 1 = must be preheated; 2 = high ambient temp required; 3 = may ignite at ambient temp; 4 = burn readily: 3: may ignite at ambient temperature;
•IDLH (NIOSH) - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 2500 ppm;
•Odor Threshold High - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 653 ppm;
•Odor Threshold Low - The lowest concentration at which a substance can be detected or recognized using the sense of smell: 3.6 ppm;
•MAK - Maximum Allowable Concentration (Federal Republic of Germany): 500 ppm;
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsACETONE•Toxic, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxics Release Inventory programs
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004ACETONE•Cardiovascular or blood toxicity hazards: suspected
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006ACETONE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007ACETONE• occupationally related - ACGIH TLV (human TWA)
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986ACETONE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia" 1994ACETONE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (mouse ihl)
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia" 1994ACETONE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (mouse ihl)
RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology 1946ACETONE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1983ACETONE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1983ACETONE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Sex Chromosome Loss and Nondisjunction (Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
RTECS®- CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2002ACETONE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant ( human )
RTECS®- CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2002ACETONE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant ( human )
RTECS®- Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005 -,27,2005ACETONE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1984ACETONE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1984ACETONE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1943ACETONE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant ( human )
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 2001ACETONE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 2001ACETONE• sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,3,1971ACETONE• occupationally related - MSHA STANDARD-air (human TWA)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5975ACETONE• reproductive - Spermatogenesis (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 3122ACETONE• kidney or renal system - Changes in bladder weight (rat TDLo)
• liver - Changes in liver weight (rat TDLo)
• blood - Normocytic anemia (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994ACETONE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Construc) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994ACETONE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Fed Cont) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994ACETONE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Gen Indu) (human TWA)
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993ACETONE• occupationally related - OSHA PEL (Shipyard) (human TWA)
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1970ACETONE• skin - Primary skin irritant (rabbit )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
FDA Food Additive StatusFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Association of Occupational and Environmental ClinicsAOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
EPA Water Disinfection By-Products CarcinogenicityEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2006. EPA Water Disinfection By-Products with Carcinogenicity Estimates. Last updated: 10 April 2006.
FDA Everything Added to FoodFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
IFRA Fragrance Ingredient ListIFRA (International Fragrance Assocication). 2010. IFRA Fragrance Ingredient List based on 2008 Use Survey. Accessed online 01/04/2010: http://www.ifraorg.org/Home/News/Latest-News/page.aspx/66?xf_itemId=43&xf_selectionDatapartId=25
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996.
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2006
RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007RTECS®- TLV/BEI,2007
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986 -,280,1986
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia" 1994RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia". (Hazardous substances. Galogen and oxygen containing substances), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1994 -,409,1994
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia" 1994RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia". (Hazardous substances. Galogen and oxygen containing substances), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1994. -,409,1994
RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology 1946RTECS®- American Journal of Ophthalmology. (Ophthalmic Pub. Co., 435 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 1415, Chicago, IL 60611) Series 3: V.1- 1918- 29,1363,1946
RTECS®- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1983RTECS®- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. (New York Academy of Sciences, 2 E. 63rd St., New York, NY 10021) V.1- 1877- 407,186,1983
RTECS®- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1983RTECS®- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. (New York Academy of Sciences, 2 E. 63rd St., New York, NY 10021) V.1- 407,186,1983
RTECS®- CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2002RTECS®- CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. (CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431) V.1- 32,43,2002
RTECS®- CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2002RTECS®- CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. (CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431) V.1- 1971- 32,43,2002
RTECS®- Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005 -,27,2005RTECS®- Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005 -,27,2005
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1984RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 22,623,1984
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1984RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982- 22,623,1984
RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1943RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU. 25,282,1943
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 2001RTECS®- Journal of Toxicologic Pathology. (Nihon Dokusei Byori Gakkai, editor, 3-25-8 Nishi- shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan) V.1- 1988 29,187,2001
RTECS®- Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 2001RTECS®- Journal of Toxicologic Pathology. (Nihon Dokusei Byori Gakkai, editor, 3-25-8 Nishi- shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan) V.1- 29,187,2001
RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,3,1971RTECS®- MSHA STANDARD-air: 3,3,1971
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service 5975RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. PB91-185975
RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series 3122RTECS®- National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206- NIH-91-3122
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Construc): 29,1926.55,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Fed Cont): 41,50-204.50,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910 1994RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Gen Indu): 29,1910.1000,1994
RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915 1993RTECS®- OSHA PEL (Shipyard): 29,1915.1000,1993
RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet 1970RTECS®- Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817) 5/7/1970

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