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National Drinking Water Database


National Drinking Water Database - Chemical Contaminants

Acenaphthene


Status: Unregulated - EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Acenaphthene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) released from fossil fuel combustion and petroleum refining; it is also used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, plastics and pharmaceuticals, and as an insecticide and fungicide.

 
Detected
Found above
health guidelines
Found above
legal limit
States
3
-
-
Water utilities
5
-
-
People Served
203,154
-
-

Health Concerns for Acenaphthene:


Acenaphthene Exposure by State

Water utilities in 3 states have reported detecting Acenaphthene in treated tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies.

StateWater Suppliers with Acenaphthene contamination
SystemsPopulation
Delaware2201,075
Arkansas11,770
Iowa2309
Total5203,154

The Most Polluted Communities

5 water utilities reported detecting Acenaphthene in tap water since 2004, according to EWG's analysis of water quality data supplied by state water agencies

Ranked by highest average Acenaphthene level

RankSystem Population Served Positive test results of total reported tests Average Level
(Range)
1Plover Water Supply
Storm Lake, IA
951 of 13.7 ppb
(3.7 ppb)
2Hampton Waterworks
Hampton, AR
1,7702 of 50.07 ppb
(0 to 0.24 ppb)
3Autumn Woods Mobile Home Park
Wyoming, DE
751 of 20.05 ppb
(0 to 0.1 ppb)
4Palmer Water Supply
Palmer, IA
2141 of 20.05 ppb
(0 to 0.1 ppb)
5Artesian Water Company
Newark, DE
201,0001 of 73< 0.01 ppb
(0 to 0.17 ppb)

Health Based Limits for Acenaphthene

StandardDescriptionLevel
Health-Based Screening LevelA benchmark concentration of contaminants in water that may be of potential concern for human health, if exceeded. For noncarcinogens, the HBSL represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse effects over a lifetime of exposure. For carcinogens, the HBSL range represents the contaminant concentration in drinking water that corresponds to an excess estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 chance in 1 million to 1 chance in 10 thousand. Source: U.S. Geological Survey.400 ppb
EPA Human Health Water Quality CriteriaWater quality criteria set by the US EPA provide guidance for states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to protect human health. These are non-enforceable standards based upon exposure by both drinking water and the contribution of water contamination to other consumed foods. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.670 ppb
Drinking Water Equivalent LevelA lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.2000 ppb

Testing Summary for Acenaphthene

Are tests routinely required for Acenaphthene by federal law?No
Water suppliers reporting tests for Acenaphthene (2004-2009):2,164 of 47,576
Average testing rate for water supplier reporting tests (2004-2009):0.4 per year

Cancer

Type of concern: Reference:
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mikrobiologiya 1985
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004
One or more in vitro tests non-mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Mutation Research 2007
Cancer - not classifiable/not likely to be human carcinogen Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of concern: Reference:
Limited evidence of gastrointestinal or liver toxicity Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004

Ecotoxicology

Type of concern: Reference:
Wildlife and environmental toxicity EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants



Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority PollutantsACENAPHTHENE•Priority water pollutant under the Clean Water Act
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004ACENAPHTHENE•Gastrointestinal or liver toxicity hazards: suspected
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensACENAPHTHENE•IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)
RTECS®- Mikrobiologiya 1985ACENAPHTHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (other micro-organisms )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002ACENAPHTHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster lng)
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004ACENAPHTHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2007ACENAPHTHENE• mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Mutation in Micro-organism (Salmonella typhimurium )



references

government/industry list/academic study reference
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Scorecard.org Toxicity InformationAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
RTECS®- Mikrobiologiya 1985RTECS®- Mikrobiologiya. Microbiology. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 54,360,1985
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2002RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 517,187,2002
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2004RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 557,99,2004
RTECS®- Mutation Research 2007RTECS®- Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 626,88,2007

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